Thursday
10:38am
permalink

The first interview with Edward Snowden.  It’s important for everyone to watch this.  

I find it troubling that this is the first interview with Edward Snowden, and the video was posted several times to YouTube and removed.  It was posted to Vimeo, which then came under DDoS attack and then Vimeo took it down.  All of the coverage of this interview is from outside the US - it was big news in The Guardian in the UK and German media.  None of the US media outlets are covering it.  That’s crazy troubling.  It’s an important interview.  I’ve embedded the version from LiveLeak.com, I wonder how long it will stay up there.

Snowden: “The breaking point for me was seeing the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, directly lie under oath to Congress – there is no saving an intelligence community that believes that it can lie to the public and to legislators who need to be able to trust it and regulate its actions. Seeing that really meant for me there was no going back.

I believe Edward Snowden is a whistleblower of government officials breaking the law, and is a hero for blowing that whistle.  He should be allowed back into the U.S. without punishment for whistleblowing.  If we don’t protect whistleblower of government officials breaking the law, then we are one step away from there being no checks and balances in our government.  Government officials cannot be allowed to put programs together and then lie to Congress, who are responsible for oversight.  

Tuesday
3:17pm
permalink
Norman Rockwell’s depiction of Town Meeting
Next Tuesday at 5pm is the deadline to submit your nomination paper, requiring only your signature, to run for Amherst’s 350 year-old Town Meeting.  What are you waiting for?  Jump in, the water’s fine!  The commitment is about 7-9 evenings/year.  Town Meeting makes all of our local laws and regulations, as well as the town and schools’ budgets.  It’s a great way to give back to the community, help ensure our town makes rational decision, and be in the know about what’s going on in our small town.  Bonus: You get to hang out, legislate, and drink beers (well, afterwards) with your neighbors.  We need rational folks to serve, otherwise… well… irrational folks will be in charge - making all our local laws and regulations and budgets!
It only takes your signature on the form down at the Clerk’s office in Town Hall.  And you too can go down in history with folks like Noah Webster (of the Dictionary), Mevil Dewey (of the Dewey Decimal system), Edward Dickinson (Emily’s father), Ebenezer Mattoon, Horace Kellogg, and hundreds of others as a member of Amherst Town Meeting.  What are you waiting for?  Jump in!  Honestly, the water’s fine!  Seriously.  Really.  No, really!!!!
photo: Baer Tierkel

Norman Rockwell’s depiction of Town Meeting

Next Tuesday at 5pm is the deadline to submit your nomination paper, requiring only your signature, to run for Amherst’s 350 year-old Town Meeting.  What are you waiting for?  Jump in, the water’s fine!  The commitment is about 7-9 evenings/year.  Town Meeting makes all of our local laws and regulations, as well as the town and schools’ budgets.  It’s a great way to give back to the community, help ensure our town makes rational decision, and be in the know about what’s going on in our small town.  Bonus: You get to hang out, legislate, and drink beers (well, afterwards) with your neighbors.  We need rational folks to serve, otherwise… well… irrational folks will be in charge - making all our local laws and regulations and budgets!

It only takes your signature on the form down at the Clerk’s office in Town Hall.  And you too can go down in history with folks like Noah Webster (of the Dictionary), Mevil Dewey (of the Dewey Decimal system), Edward Dickinson (Emily’s father), Ebenezer Mattoon, Horace Kellogg, and hundreds of others as a member of Amherst Town Meeting.  What are you waiting for?  Jump in!  Honestly, the water’s fine!  Seriously.  Really.  No, really!!!!

Thursday
3:33pm
permalink

It looks like Maverick’s is on!  Friday at 8am (PST).  It’s sure nice to dream of Cali surf, as we wake up to -20F wind chill here in the hills.

"Big-wave surfers have waiting four years for the type of ocean swell that defines Maverick’s: big, dangerous, and photogenic.  That swell appears to be imminent, and there were strong indications Tuesday night that the Half Moon Bay contest will be held Friday.

Meterologist Mark Sponsler, the event’s official surf forecaster, said “the strongest storm of the season” is heading toward the West Coast.  It developed on the dateline Monday and quickly exploded, generating 60-knot winds and seas in excess of 50 feet, aimed well at California, and particularly at Maverick’s.”

The photos above is taken from the last massive Maverick’s swell in 2010.

Maverick’s Invitational Surf Tournament

Monday
10:18am
permalink
Amherst. Birthplace of the Dewey Decimal System. Amherst resident Melvil Dewey was quite the obsessive with order. In addition to his library classification system, he also invented the hanging folder, and was a fierce proponent of “Spelling Reform” - changing his name from Melville to Melvil, eliminating those pesky letters “which have no use” (have→hav, though→tho, guard→gard, butter→butr), and went on to found the American Spelling Reform Association. He was most likely influenced by another Amherst-based spelling reformer, Noah Webster. Amherst, where only the “h” is silent.
photo: Baer Tierkel

Amherst. Birthplace of the Dewey Decimal System. Amherst resident Melvil Dewey was quite the obsessive with order. In addition to his library classification system, he also invented the hanging folder, and was a fierce proponent of “Spelling Reform” - changing his name from Melville to Melvil, eliminating those pesky letters “which have no use” (have→hav, though→tho, guard→gard, butter→butr), and went on to found the American Spelling Reform Association. He was most likely influenced by another Amherst-based spelling reformer, Noah Webster. Amherst, where only the “h” is silent.

Friday
10:51am
permalink
Dzogchen Buddhist Monastery.
I’m just back from a silent 9-day retreat at a Dzogchen Buddhist Monastery up on the Hudson River.  I’ve been studying Buddhism and Taoism for the past year, in addition to developing a daily meditation practice as part of an effort to hack the way my brain works to produce a more equanimous and peaceful state of constant being.  Enjoying every moment of existence.
I rose at 4:50am each day, and walked the halls gently ringing the wake-up bell.  Then on to 5:30am meditation, a silent breakfast, more meditation, a nice walk along the Hudson with the Bald Eagles, and continuing on like this through the day until slipping into bed at 9:30pm.  
The silence was wonderful.  It is amazing how much more you can be aware of your environment when you shut up.  How much more you enjoy your meal when you can bring your full attention to the flavors, the textures of your food.  Even the motions of eating.  You’d think that a meal would be done quickly, but just the opposite occurs - you take more time, notice the infinite detail of each bite, of each burst of flavor.  By the end of the week, I found myself taking about 45 minutes to work my way through a meal.
We meditated in the cathedral with its 5 story-high wood-beam ceiling, beginning and ending each 35 minute meditation with Tibetan chanting.  Dzogchen is a Tibetan Buddhist lineage, and chanting is a ritual that goes back 1500 years for the Tibetans.  It was really amazing to hear the chanting in the acoustics of this old, huge, cathedral.  My Tibetan was a bit rusty - as in I’ve never heard Tibetan before - so the phonetic Chanting Book let me dive into it with gusto.  There was a chant with 108 syllables that was chanted 108 times, going faster, and faster, and faster, until exploding into a frenzy, filling the cathedral to overflow with rhythmic sound, only to suddenly halt, everyone lapsing into a meditative state with all of our bones buzzing.
Twice per day there was a Dharma talk, where Lama Surya Das discussed the Dharma, known as The Middle Way, with us, illuminating different aspects of practice.  The core of the Dharma, for me, is realizing that everything in the world is fleeting, everything is unsatisfying in one way or another, and that the concept of “I” doesn’t exist.  Some heady stuff.  Once you realize all of that, you pretty much come to calm acceptance of everything.  You stop being attached the all the good stuff (clinging to that chocolate or bourbon), and your aversion to the bad stuff melts away (like the pain in your back).  In fact you come to an acceptance of everything just as it is.  Everything is just perfect, just as it is.  You still have preferences, and still work to improve the world, but you lose your attachment to all the outcomes.  You live more in the moment, in the process that is life, just this moment.
I’m diggin’ it.
photo: Baer Tierkel

Dzogchen Buddhist Monastery.

I’m just back from a silent 9-day retreat at a Dzogchen Buddhist Monastery up on the Hudson River.  I’ve been studying Buddhism and Taoism for the past year, in addition to developing a daily meditation practice as part of an effort to hack the way my brain works to produce a more equanimous and peaceful state of constant being.  Enjoying every moment of existence.

I rose at 4:50am each day, and walked the halls gently ringing the wake-up bell.  Then on to 5:30am meditation, a silent breakfast, more meditation, a nice walk along the Hudson with the Bald Eagles, and continuing on like this through the day until slipping into bed at 9:30pm.  

The silence was wonderful.  It is amazing how much more you can be aware of your environment when you shut up.  How much more you enjoy your meal when you can bring your full attention to the flavors, the textures of your food.  Even the motions of eating.  You’d think that a meal would be done quickly, but just the opposite occurs - you take more time, notice the infinite detail of each bite, of each burst of flavor.  By the end of the week, I found myself taking about 45 minutes to work my way through a meal.

We meditated in the cathedral with its 5 story-high wood-beam ceiling, beginning and ending each 35 minute meditation with Tibetan chanting.  Dzogchen is a Tibetan Buddhist lineage, and chanting is a ritual that goes back 1500 years for the Tibetans.  It was really amazing to hear the chanting in the acoustics of this old, huge, cathedral.  My Tibetan was a bit rusty - as in I’ve never heard Tibetan before - so the phonetic Chanting Book let me dive into it with gusto.  There was a chant with 108 syllables that was chanted 108 times, going faster, and faster, and faster, until exploding into a frenzy, filling the cathedral to overflow with rhythmic sound, only to suddenly halt, everyone lapsing into a meditative state with all of our bones buzzing.

Twice per day there was a Dharma talk, where Lama Surya Das discussed the Dharma, known as The Middle Way, with us, illuminating different aspects of practice.  The core of the Dharma, for me, is realizing that everything in the world is fleeting, everything is unsatisfying in one way or another, and that the concept of “I” doesn’t exist.  Some heady stuff.  Once you realize all of that, you pretty much come to calm acceptance of everything.  You stop being attached the all the good stuff (clinging to that chocolate or bourbon), and your aversion to the bad stuff melts away (like the pain in your back).  In fact you come to an acceptance of everything just as it is.  Everything is just perfect, just as it is.  You still have preferences, and still work to improve the world, but you lose your attachment to all the outcomes.  You live more in the moment, in the process that is life, just this moment.

I’m diggin’ it.

Wednesday
8:57am
permalink


One of our local cafes just began surveilling all of their customers.  After an initial outcry from customers, one of the owners was interested in why people were put off by being surveilled all the time.  Here is my response.

When you are surveilled, you lose control of who your audience is.  Your image can now be used and misused by people you have never seen or know, without your control.  Under video surveillance, you lose your privacy.
VOYEURISMStudies have found that mostly male employees frequently use their businesses surveillance cameras to voyeuristically spy on women.  In studies, one in ten women were targeted for entirely voyeuristically reasons.  The risk was greatly increased when the videos were available for live streaming to mobile devices like phones and computers.
In a college town like Amherst, where attractive women frequent your cafe, there is great risk of videos of these customers being misused.
As your video feed is streamed to mobile devices, this feed can be easily misused by anyone with access - at a party, when out with friends, anywhere.  What would prevent an employee from showing the feed to anyone they want?
There is nothing to prevent an employee from capturing the feed and posting it to the internet.
The feed can be hacked by non-employees and used for voyeurism personally or posted on the internet.
A TOOL FOR THE AUTHORITIESCertainly this can be a positive tool for the APD to track down a thief of a laptop in the cafe after a crime has been committed.
But, according to studies of the effectiveness of video surveillance, there is no evidence that the presence of CCTV has any impact on local crime rates.
Private surveillance video has been proven as a tool for the federal, state, and local authorities to track target activist groups, targeted groups and minorities.
Your video feed is easily accessible without the leg work required for a warrant like a wire tap.  All that is required is a simple subpoena.  
Video footage has been shown to be greatly misused by police authorities for personal and voyeuristic and criminal misuse.
The authorities use your footage to identify that a customer was associating with a specific person?  Without context.
Any feed that you capture, can now become a free resource for the NSA and other federal authorities to spy (legally or illegally) against your customers.  This is being done today by the NSA using feeds from all over the world.
A TOOL FOR CRIMINALSAs your video surveillance of customers is being streamed using Internet Protocol (IP), it can be hacked without you *ever* knowing.
Many customers enter their computer/internet/website passwords.  Your video stream will be a boon to gathering those passwords being entered on video.  This can now be used and/or sold to criminals by anyone who gains access to your stream.
Voyeurs can hack it and post it to the internet.
NSA can hack it and use it for intelligence gathering.
Criminals can hack it and use it to target victims - when is this customer regularly at this cafe; blackmail; scams; targets of future crime.
Hack the stream and sell it to internet media sites, or other criminals, or television.
POPULAR MEDIAPosting on Youtube, HotorNot, etc.  The internet is full of misappropriated surveillance video.  There was a wonderful video from a Chicago public housing lobby of a suicide.
Filmmakers (usually low quality and risqué) using footage for B-roll.  
There is precious little to prevent you, as the owner of the video and the cafe, from selling your footage to Youtube, “Cops”, “America’s Funniest Home Movies”, or any other internet or television show without ever seeking permission from your customers.  The recordings you make are owned by you,and you may sell them or give them to anyone you like.  There is a popular UK TV show called Caught in the Act, that is all about catching people on private surveillance video.
And certainly, anyone who hacks your stream could do the same without your permission.  And you most likely never know it.
DISCRIMINATIONStudies have shown that black people are between 1.5-2 times more likely to be surveilled than white people.  Young black men, are routinely singled out by authorities when reviewing video for increased scrutiny.  Do you wear baggy pants or shave your head?
Federal authorities are regularly using video surveillance to target ethnic groups.
PRIVACYVideo of a person is without context.  You don’t know what is being said or why a person is doing what they are doing.  Video footage like this can be easily misused and be damaging.  You may be innocently talking to that person next to you, but a blackmailer can build a damaging conspiracy around that apparent conversation, or the authorities can make damaging inferences if that person you spoke to were a criminal.  There is no context.
We are becoming a society riddled with an oppressive sense of constant monitoring and control.
Studies have shown that public video cameras bring a subtle, but profound change to citizens who are being watched.  They are more self-conscious, and less free-wheeling.  You don’t want to call attention to yourself.  People put more thought into how they dress and how they act, lest they look too much like terrorists, gang members, hookers, or druggies.  Studies have shown that people who “seem out of place” are subject to much deeper surveillance.
An armed guard dressed in SWAT gear, as our local Bank of America uses, and constant surveillance cameras creates an environment of distrust and paranoia for 99.99% of your customers who are honest and pose no threat, in order to intimidate the .01% of your customers who might be a problem.
Privacy is a cherished value in our society.  As individuals we should be able to choose who our audience is.  If I am a woman who bends over in front of the Rao’s line, I’m choosing to allow the clerk to see my cleavage.  I’m no choosing to allow anyone with access to the camera feed to watch my cleavage, much less anyone on the internet who it may be sold to, used by, or any hacker or criminal who can gain access, or any government authority who may get access.  I should be able to choose who is my audience in life.
CONCLUSIONI believe the benefit of having your having video to solve crime after the fact, is greatly outweighed by the negative impact on your cafe’s warm and welcoming environment and the potential for misuse of your customers’ privacy.No other cafe in Amherst has seen the need to implement video surveillance inside their cafes.  They have solved their problems without sacrificing their customers’ privacy.  I would encourage you to be creative problem-solvers and not take the easy route, and do the same.Privacy is a cherished value in our society.  Your customers should be able to choose who their audience is.  You are taking away that privacy from them. 
photo: Baer Tierkel
One of our local cafes just began surveilling all of their customers.  After an initial outcry from customers, one of the owners was interested in why people were put off by being surveilled all the time.  Here is my response.
When you are surveilled, you lose control of who your audience is.  Your image can now be used and misused by people you have never seen or know, without your control.  Under video surveillance, you lose your privacy.

VOYEURISM
  • Studies have found that mostly male employees frequently use their businesses surveillance cameras to voyeuristically spy on women.  In studies, one in ten women were targeted for entirely voyeuristically reasons.  The risk was greatly increased when the videos were available for live streaming to mobile devices like phones and computers.
  • In a college town like Amherst, where attractive women frequent your cafe, there is great risk of videos of these customers being misused.
  • As your video feed is streamed to mobile devices, this feed can be easily misused by anyone with access - at a party, when out with friends, anywhere.  What would prevent an employee from showing the feed to anyone they want?
  • There is nothing to prevent an employee from capturing the feed and posting it to the internet.
  • The feed can be hacked by non-employees and used for voyeurism personally or posted on the internet.

A TOOL FOR THE AUTHORITIES
  • Certainly this can be a positive tool for the APD to track down a thief of a laptop in the cafe after a crime has been committed.
  • But, according to studies of the effectiveness of video surveillance, there is no evidence that the presence of CCTV has any impact on local crime rates.
  • Private surveillance video has been proven as a tool for the federal, state, and local authorities to track target activist groups, targeted groups and minorities.
  • Your video feed is easily accessible without the leg work required for a warrant like a wire tap.  All that is required is a simple subpoena.  
  • Video footage has been shown to be greatly misused by police authorities for personal and voyeuristic and criminal misuse.
  • The authorities use your footage to identify that a customer was associating with a specific person?  Without context.
  • Any feed that you capture, can now become a free resource for the NSA and other federal authorities to spy (legally or illegally) against your customers.  This is being done today by the NSA using feeds from all over the world.
A TOOL FOR CRIMINALS
  • As your video surveillance of customers is being streamed using Internet Protocol (IP), it can be hacked without you *ever* knowing.
  • Many customers enter their computer/internet/website passwords.  Your video stream will be a boon to gathering those passwords being entered on video.  This can now be used and/or sold to criminals by anyone who gains access to your stream.
  • Voyeurs can hack it and post it to the internet.
  • NSA can hack it and use it for intelligence gathering.
  • Criminals can hack it and use it to target victims - when is this customer regularly at this cafe; blackmail; scams; targets of future crime.
  • Hack the stream and sell it to internet media sites, or other criminals, or television.
POPULAR MEDIA
  • Posting on Youtube, HotorNot, etc.  The internet is full of misappropriated surveillance video.  There was a wonderful video from a Chicago public housing lobby of a suicide.
  • Filmmakers (usually low quality and risqué) using footage for B-roll.  
  • There is precious little to prevent you, as the owner of the video and the cafe, from selling your footage to Youtube, “Cops”, “America’s Funniest Home Movies”, or any other internet or television show without ever seeking permission from your customers.  The recordings you make are owned by you,and you may sell them or give them to anyone you like.  There is a popular UK TV show called Caught in the Act, that is all about catching people on private surveillance video.
  • And certainly, anyone who hacks your stream could do the same without your permission.  And you most likely never know it.
DISCRIMINATION
  • Studies have shown that black people are between 1.5-2 times more likely to be surveilled than white people.  Young black men, are routinely singled out by authorities when reviewing video for increased scrutiny.  Do you wear baggy pants or shave your head?
  • Federal authorities are regularly using video surveillance to target ethnic groups.
PRIVACY
  • Video of a person is without context.  You don’t know what is being said or why a person is doing what they are doing.  Video footage like this can be easily misused and be damaging.  You may be innocently talking to that person next to you, but a blackmailer can build a damaging conspiracy around that apparent conversation, or the authorities can make damaging inferences if that person you spoke to were a criminal.  There is no context.
  • We are becoming a society riddled with an oppressive sense of constant monitoring and control.
  • Studies have shown that public video cameras bring a subtle, but profound change to citizens who are being watched.  They are more self-conscious, and less free-wheeling.  You don’t want to call attention to yourself.  People put more thought into how they dress and how they act, lest they look too much like terrorists, gang members, hookers, or druggies.  Studies have shown that people who “seem out of place” are subject to much deeper surveillance.
  • An armed guard dressed in SWAT gear, as our local Bank of America uses, and constant surveillance cameras creates an environment of distrust and paranoia for 99.99% of your customers who are honest and pose no threat, in order to intimidate the .01% of your customers who might be a problem.
  • Privacy is a cherished value in our society.  As individuals we should be able to choose who our audience is.  If I am a woman who bends over in front of the Rao’s line, I’m choosing to allow the clerk to see my cleavage.  I’m no choosing to allow anyone with access to the camera feed to watch my cleavage, much less anyone on the internet who it may be sold to, used by, or any hacker or criminal who can gain access, or any government authority who may get access.  I should be able to choose who is my audience in life.

CONCLUSION
I believe the benefit of having your having video to solve crime after the fact, is greatly outweighed by the negative impact on your cafe’s warm and welcoming environment and the potential for misuse of your customers’ privacy.

No other cafe in Amherst has seen the need to implement video surveillance inside their cafes.  They have solved their problems without sacrificing their customers’ privacy.  I would encourage you to be creative problem-solvers and not take the easy route, and do the same.

Privacy is a cherished value in our society.  Your customers should be able to choose who their audience is.  You are taking away that privacy from them. 
Tuesday
12:26pm
permalink
Good friends, good times.
We made the trek north through the wilderness to The Brass Buckle in Greenfield, where chef JD was having one of his invite-only, occasional, chef’s dinners in what is normally the Best Breakfast Joint in the valley.  JD and his partner Anika bring their punk sensibility, that they share in their band Rebel Base, to their restaurant.  JD rocked it last night from the get-go, pairing olive with grapefruit in his Amuse-Bouche.  Not in a thousand years would I have gone down that path, but it was just the first awesome step of a thousand flavors last night.  We ended up closing the joint, as JD walked the walk, with a Miller High Life Forty in hand.  If you get a chance to wrangle an invite to JD and Anika’s next dinner, jump on it!
photo: Baer Tierkel

Good friends, good times.

We made the trek north through the wilderness to The Brass Buckle in Greenfield, where chef JD was having one of his invite-only, occasional, chef’s dinners in what is normally the Best Breakfast Joint in the valley.  JD and his partner Anika bring their punk sensibility, that they share in their band Rebel Base, to their restaurant.  JD rocked it last night from the get-go, pairing olive with grapefruit in his Amuse-Bouche.  Not in a thousand years would I have gone down that path, but it was just the first awesome step of a thousand flavors last night.  We ended up closing the joint, as JD walked the walk, with a Miller High Life Forty in hand.  If you get a chance to wrangle an invite to JD and Anika’s next dinner, jump on it!

Monday
12:01pm
permalink
Sometimes I feel that life is such a puzzle, so complex, so many moving parts.  How does everything fit together?  People, family, friends, colleagues, neighbors, strangers, work, play, music, poetry, civics, books, life, death, hurts, smiles, laughs, thunder, tea, html5, health, love.  And then I remember.  That’s it, love.  That’s what ties it all together.  Sometimes I get lost, get overwhelmed by everything going on, trying to line everything up into it’s proper place, trying to make sense of everything.  I forget that it’s all just an illusion, just a story.  That I need to let go of that, and just see every disparate thing flying by for it’s truth, how it just is.  And to bring love to every single moving part, bring love to the party.  My favorite word in the world, the Pali word, Mettā, which loosely translates to lovingkindness.  Gotta always bring the Mettā.
photo: Baer Tierkel

Sometimes I feel that life is such a puzzle, so complex, so many moving parts.  How does everything fit together?  People, family, friends, colleagues, neighbors, strangers, work, play, music, poetry, civics, books, life, death, hurts, smiles, laughs, thunder, tea, html5, health, love.  And then I remember.  That’s it, love.  That’s what ties it all together.  Sometimes I get lost, get overwhelmed by everything going on, trying to line everything up into it’s proper place, trying to make sense of everything.  I forget that it’s all just an illusion, just a story.  That I need to let go of that, and just see every disparate thing flying by for it’s truth, how it just is.  And to bring love to every single moving part, bring love to the party.  My favorite word in the world, the Pali word, Mettā, which loosely translates to lovingkindness.  Gotta always bring the Mettā.

Tuesday
2:11pm
permalink

Spotify Genres

If you’re like me, you break up your work by digging around Spotify finding cool new tunes, well, here’s something that may make your head explode. If you enter into the Spotify search box the word genre followed by a colon and a genre that they track in quotes like this [genre:”Acoustic Blues”], you’ll get back a sweet list of songs in that genre. I’m listening to “Third Wave Ska Revival” as I write this.

Trust me, it’s a deep, wonderful, warm rabbit hole. Here’s a comprehensive list of Spotify Genres that they track that you can explore. And don’t blame me when your partner finds you in a stupor with some Symphonic Black Metal blaring away….

Spotify Genres (genre:”xxxx”)
2-Step/British Garage
Aboriginal Rock
Acadian
Acappella
Acid Folk
Acid House
Acid Jazz
Acid Rock
Acid Techno
Acoustic Blues
Acoustic Chicago Blues
Acoustic Louisiana Blues
Acoustic Memphis Blues
Acoustic New Orleans Blues
Acoustic Texas Blues
Adult Alternative
Adult Alternative Pop/Rock
Adult Contemporary
African Folk
African Jazz
Afro-Beat
Afro-Brazilian
Afro-Colombian
Afro-Cuban
Afro-Cuban Jazz
Afro Peruvian
Afro-Pop
Album Rock
Al-Jil
Alternative CCM
Alternative Country
Alternative Country-Rock
Alternative Dance
Alternative Folk
Alternative Metal
Alternative Pop/Rock
Alternative Rap
Alternative Singer/Songwriter
Ambient
Ambient Breakbeat
Ambient Dub
Ambient House
Ambient Pop
Ambient Techno
Americana
American Jewish Pop
American Popular Song
American Punk
American Trad Rock
American Underground
AM Pop
Anarchist Punk
Andalus Classical
Andean Folk
Anime Music
Anti-Folk
Apala
Appalachian Folk
Arena Rock
Argentine Folk
Armenian
Armenian Folk
Asian Folk
Asian Pop
Atonal
Audiobooks
Aussie Rock
AustroPop
Avant-Garde
Avant-Garde Jazz
Avant-Prog
Bachata
Bakersfield Sound
Ballads
Ballroom Dance
Banda
Bar Band
Barbershop Quartet
Baroque

Baroque Pop
Bass Music
Bava
Beach
Beat Poetry
Beguine
Beguine Moderne
Beguine Vide
Belair
Bel Canto Opera
Belly Dancing
Bhangra
Big Band
Big Band Latino
Big Beat
Bikutsi
Black Gospel
Blaxploitation
Bluebeat
Blue-Eyed Soul
Bluegrass
Bluegrass-Gospel
Blue Humor
Blues
Blues Gospel
Blues Revival
Blues-Rock
Bolero
Bollywood
Bombara
Boogaloo
Boogie Rock
Boogie-Woogie
Bop
Bossa Nova
Brass Band
Brazilian Folk
Brazilian Jazz
Brazilian Pop
Brill Building Pop
British Blues
British Dance Bands
British Folk
British Folk-Rock
British Invasion
British Metal
British Psychedelia
British Punk
British Rap
British Trad Rock
Britpop
Broken Beat
Brown-Eyed Soul
Bubblegum
Bulgarian Folk
C-86
Cabaret
Cadence
Cajun
Calypso
Canterbury Scene
Caribbean Folk
Carnatic
Carnival
Carols
Cartoon Music
Cast Recordings
CCM
Celebrity
Celtic
Celtic Folk
Celtic Fusion
Celtic Gospel
Celtic New Age
Celtic Pop
Celtic Rock
Ceremonial
Cha-Cha
Chamber Jazz
Chamber Music
Chamber Pop
Changui
Chants
Chanukah
Charanga
Chassidic
Chicago Blues
Chicago Soul
Children’s
Children’s Folk
Children’s Stories
Chilean Folk
Chimurenga
Chinese Classical
Chinese Folk
Chinese Pop
Chinese Pop-Rock
Choral
Choro
Chouval Bwa
Christian Comedy
Christian Metal
Christian Punk
Christian Rap
Christian Rock
Christmas
Circus Music
Classical
Classical Crossover
Classical Guitar
Classical Pop
Classic Female Blues
Classic Jazz
Close Harmony
Club/Dance
Cocktail
College Rock
Comedy
Comedy Rap
Comedy Rock
Compas
Computer Music
Conceptual Art
Conjunto
Contemporary Bluegrass
Contemporary Blues
Contemporary Celtic
Contemporary Country
Contemporary Flamenco
Contemporary Folk
Contemporary Gospel
Contemporary Instrumental
Contemporary Jazz
Contemporary Native American
Contemporary R&B
Contemporary Reggae
Contemporary Singer/Songwriter
Continental Jazz
Cool
Corrido
Country
Country Blues
Country Boogie
Country Comedy
Country-Folk
Country Gospel
Country-Pop
Country-Rock
Country-Soul
Cowboy
Cowpunk
Creative Orchestra
Creole
Crossover Jazz
Cuatro
Cuban Jazz
Cuban Pop
Cumbia
Dance Bands
Dancehall
Dance-Pop
Dance-Rock
Danzon
Dark Ambient
Death Metal/Black Metal
Deep Funk
Deep Funk Revival
Deep Soul
Delta Blues
Demonstration/Test Disc
Detroit Blues
Detroit Rock
Detroit Techno
Dhrupad
Dimotiko
Dirty Blues
Dirty Rap
Dirty South
Disco
Dixieland
Dixieland Revival
DJ
Djabdong
Documentary
Doom Metal
Doo Wop
Downbeat
Downtempo
Drama
Dream Pop
Drill’n’bass
Drinking Songs
Dub
Dub Poetry
Dutch Pop
Early American Blues
Early British Pop/Rock
Early Creative
Early Music
East Coast Blues
East Coast Rap
Easter
Eastern Europe
Eastern European Pop
Easy Listening
Easy Pop
Educational
Egyptian/Sudanese Music
Electric Blues
Electric Chicago Blues
Electric Country Blues
Electric Delta Blues
Electric Harmonica Blues
Electric Memphis Blues
Electric Texas Blues
Electro
Electro-Acoustic
Electro-Industrial
Electro-Jazz
Electronic
Electronica
Electro-Techno
Emo
Enka
Environmental
Erotica
Ethiopian Pop
Ethnic
Ethnic Comedy
Ethnic Fusion
Euro-Dance
European Folk
Euro-Pop
Euro-Rock
Exercise
Exotica
Experimental
Experimental Ambient
Experimental Big Band
Experimental Dub
Experimental Electro
Experimental Jungle
Experimental Rock
Experimental Techno
Fado
Fairy Tales
Fantasy
Field Recordings
Fight Songs
Film Music
Finger-Picked Guitar
Finnish Folk
Flamenco
Folk
Folk-Blues
Folk-Jazz
Folklore
Folk-Pop
Folk Revival
Folk-Rock
Folksongs
Foreign Language Rap
Foreign Language Rock
Forro
Frat Rock
Freakbeat
Free Folk
Free Funk
Free Improvisation
Free Jazz
Freestyle
French Chanson
French Folk
French Pop
French Rock
Fuji
Funk
Funk Metal
Funky Breaks
Fusion
Gabba
Gamelan
Game Sounds
Gangsta Rap
Garage/House
Garage Punk
Garage Rap/Grime
Garage Rock
Garage Rock Revival
Gay Comedy
Georgian Choir
G-Funk
Glam Rock
Glitch
Glitter
Goa Trance
Go-Go
Golden Age
Gospel
Gospel Choir
Goth Metal
Goth Rock
Greek Folk
Gregorian Chant
Grindcore
Grunge
Grupero
Guaguancó
Guitar Virtuoso
Gwo Ka
Gypsy
Hair Metal
Halloween
Happy Hardcore
Hard Bop
Hardcore Punk
Hardcore Rap
Hardcore Techno
Hard Rock
Harmonica Blues
Harmony Vocal Group
Hawaiian Pop
Healing
Heartland Rock
Heavy Metal
Hebrew
Highlife
Hi-NRG
Hip-Hop
Holiday
Hong Kong Pop
Honky Tonk
Hot Jazz
Hot Rod
Hot Rod Revival
House
Hungarian Folk
Hymns
IDM
Illbient
Improvisation
Indian Classical
Indian Folk
Indian Pop
Indie Electronic
Indie Pop
Indie Rock
Indigenous
Indipop
Industrial
Industrial Dance
Industrial Drum’n’Bass
Industrial Metal
Inspirational
Instructional
Instrumental Country
Instrumental Gospel
Instrumental Pop
Instrumental Rock
International Folk
International Pop
Interview
Inuit
Iran-Classical
Irish Folk
Italian Folk
Italian Pop
Jaipongan
Jam Bands
Jangle Pop
Japanese Orchestral
Japanese Pop
Japanese Rock
Jazz
Jazz Blues
Jazz-Funk
Jazz-House
Jazz-Pop
Jazz-Rap
Jazz-Rock
Jesus Rock
Jewish Folk
Jewish Music
Jibaro
Jit
Jive
Joik
Jug Band
Juju
Juke Joint Blues
Jump Blues
Jungle/Drum’n’bass
Junkanoo
Kabuki
Karaoke
Kayokyoku
Kecak
Khmer Dance
Klezmer
Kora
Korean Pop
Korean Rock
Kraut Rock
Laika
Lambada
L.A. Punk
Latin
Latin CCM
Latin Comedy
Latin Dance
Latin Folk
Latin Freestyle
Latin Gospel
Latin Jazz
Latin Pop
Latin Rap
Latin Rock
Latin Soul
Left-Field Hip-Hop
Left-Field House
Lo-Fi
Louisiana Blues
Lounge
Lovers Rock
Lullabies
Macapat Poetry
Madchester
Mainstream Jazz
Makossa
Mambo
Mantras
Marabi
March
Marches
Mariachi
Math Rock
Mbalax
Mbaqanga
M-Base
Mbira
Mbube
Mbuti Choral
Medieval
Meditation
Memphis Blues
Memphis Soul
Mento
Merengue
Merenhouse
Merseybeat
Mexican Folk
Microhouse
Microsound
Microtonal
Middle Eastern Pop
Midwest Rap
Military
Mini Jazz
Minimalism
Minimal Techno
Minstrel
Miscellaneous
Mixed Media
Mod
Modal Music
Modern Acoustic Blues
Modern Big Band
Modern Composition
Modern Creative
Modern Delta Blues
Modern Electric Blues
Modern Electric Chicago Blues
Modern Electric Texas Blues
Modern Free
Modern Son
Mod Revival
Mood Music
Moravian Folk
Morna
Morning Radio
Motown
Movie Themes
MPB
Mugam
Musette
Musical Comedy
Musicals
Musical Theater
Music Hall
Musique Actuelle
Musique Concrète
Mystical Minimalism
Nashville Sound/Countrypolitan
Nature
Neo-Bop
Neo-Classical
Neo-Classical Metal
Neo-Electro
Neo-Glam
Neo-Prog
Neo-Psychedelia
Neo-Romantic
Neo-Soul
Neo-Traditional
Neo-Traditional Folk
Neo-Traditionalist Country
New Acoustic
New Age
New Age Tone Poems
Newbeat
New Jack Swing
New Orleans Blues
New Orleans Brass Bands
New Orleans Jazz
New Orleans R&B
New Romantic
New Traditionalist
New Wave
New Wave of British Heavy Metal
New Wave/Post-Punk Revival
New York Blues
New York Punk
New York Salsa
New Zealand Rock
Nissiotiko
Noh
Noise
Noise Pop
Noise-Rock
Norteño
Northern Soul
Norwegian Folk
Nostalgia
Novelty
Novelty Ragtime
No Wave
Nu Breaks
Nueva Cancion
Nueva Trova
Nursery Rhymes
Nyahbinghi
Obscuro
Oi!
Okinawan Pop
Okinawan Traditional
Old-School Rap
Old-Timey
Omutibo
Onda Grupera
Opera
Operettas
Oratories
Orchestral
Orchestral Jazz
Orchestral Pop
Original Score
Outlaw Country
Pachanga
Paisley Underground
Pan-Global
Party Rap
Party Soca
Peruvian Folk
Philly Soul
Piano Blues
Piedmont Blues
Pipe Bands
Plena
Poetry
Political Comedy
Political Folk
Political Rap
Political Reggae
Polka
Pop
Pop Idol
Pop-Metal
Pop-Rap
Pop/Rock
Pop-Soul
Pop Underground
Portuguese Music
Post-Bop
Post-Disco
Post-Grunge
Post-Hardcore
Post-Minimalism
Post-Punk
Post-Rock/Experimental
Post-Romantic
Power Metal
Power Pop
Praise & Worship
Prank Calls
Prewar Blues
Prewar Country Blues
Prewar Gospel Blues
Process-Generated
Progressive Alternative
Progressive Big Band
Progressive Bluegrass
Progressive Country
Progressive Electronic
Progressive Folk
Progressive House
Progressive Jazz
Progressive Metal
Progressive Trance
Prog-Rock/Art Rock
Proto-Punk
Psychedelic
Psychedelic Pop
Psychedelic Soul
Psychobilly
Pub Rock
Punk
Punk Blues
Punk Metal
Punk-Pop
Punk Revival
Pygmy
Qawwali
Quadrille
Quechua
Queercore
Quiet Storm
Radio Plays
Radio Shows
Radio Works
Raga
Ragga
Ragtime
Rai
Rakugo
Ranchera
Rap
Rap-Metal
Rap-Rock
Rapso
Rave
R&B
Read-Along Stories
Reggae
Reggae Gospel
Reggae-Pop
Reggaeton
Relaxation
Rembetika
Renaissance
Retro-Rock
Retro-Soul
Retro Swing
Rhumba
Riot Grrrl
Rock
Rockabilly
Rockabilly Revival
Rock en Español
Rock & Roll
Rocksteady
Rodeo
Romantic
Roots Reggae
Roots Rock
Russian Folk
Sacred Choral
Sacred Vocal
Sadcore
Salsa
Samba
Satire
Scandinavian Folk
Scandinavian Metal
Scandinavian Pop
Scottish Folk
Screamo
Scriptures
Sea Shanties
Séga
Self-Help
Shaabi
Sharki
Shibuya-Kei
Shinto
Shock Jock
Shoegaze
Show Tunes
Sing-Along
Singer/Songwriter
Ska
Ska-Punk
Ska Revival
Skatepunk
Sketch Comedy
Skiffle
Slack-Key Guitar
Slide Guitar Blues
Slowcore
Sludge Metal
Smooth Jazz
Smooth Reggae
Smooth Soul
Soca
Social Commentary
Society Dance Band
Soft Rock
Software/Sounds
Solo Instrumental
Son
Sonero
Song Parody
Songster
Sophisti-Pop
Soukous
Soul
Soul-Blues
Soul-Jazz
Sound Art
Sound Collage
Sound Effects
Sound Sculpture
Soundtracks
South African Folk
South African Pop
Southeast Asian Music
Southern Gospel
Southern Rap
Southern Rock
Southern Soul
Space
Space Age Pop
Space Rock
Spanish Folk
Speeches
Speed Metal
Spiritual
Spirituals
Spoken Word
Sports Anthems
Spouge
Spy Music
Square Dance
Standards
Standup Comedy
Steel Band
St. Louis Blues
Stoner Metal
Straight-Edge
Stride
String Bands
Structured Improvisation
Sunshine Pop
Surf
Surf Revival
Swamp Blues
Swamp Pop
Swedish Folk
Swedish Pop/Rock
Sweet Bands
Swing
Switzerland Folk
Symphonic Black Metal
Synth Pop
Taarab
Taiwanese Pop
Tango
Tape Music
Tech-House
Techno
Techno Bass
Techno-Dub
Techno-Tribal
Teen Idol
Teen Pop
Tejano
Television Music
Texas Blues
Tex-Mex
Thai Pop
Thanksgiving
Third Stream
Third Wave Ska Revival
Thrash
Throat Singing
Timba
Tin Pan Alley Pop
Torch Songs
Township Jazz
Traditional
Traditional Bluegrass
Traditional Cajun
Traditional Celtic
Traditional Chinese
Traditional Country
Traditional European Folk
Traditional Folk
Traditional Gospel
Traditional Irish Folk
Traditional Japanese
Traditional Korean
Traditional Middle Eastern Folk
Traditional Native American
Traditional Pop
Traditional Scottish Folk
Trad Jazz
Trance
Travel
Tribal-House
Tribute Albums
Trip-Hop
Tropical
Tropicalia
Trot
Trova
Truck Driving Country
Turkish Folk
Turkish Music
Turntablism
TV Soundtracks
Twee Pop
Underground Rap
Uptown Soul
Urban
Urban Blues
Urban Cowboy
Urban Folk
Vallenato
Vaudeville
Vaudeville Blues
Vocal
Vocalese
Vocal Jazz
Vocal Pop
West Coast Blues
West Coast Jazz
West Coast Rap
Western Swing
Western Swing Revival
Work Songs
Worldbeat
World Fusion
Yodeling
Zouk
Zydeco

[via Twitter]
Wednesday
11:32am
permalink
Amherst Live is the new live magazine show bringing you news and insight, ideas and inspiration, from the heart of one small town. Produced by professionals, performed by rank amateurs, each quarterly show collects the best in local politics, poetry, nature, and music—together with three terse but edgy talks that will change the way you view the town you thought you knew.  A cross between TED Talks and The Moth combined with radio shows like This American Life and Snap Judgement, we bring the snap and sparkle of the city combined with the whiff of fertilizer from Hadley, intellectual vigor combined with back-fence gossip, colorful local art combined with nano-technology. 
Premiers September 19 at the Eric Carle Museum theater. Tickets are expected to go quickly, so reserve yours today by visiting http://amherstlive.com.
photo: Baer Tierkel

Amherst Live is the new live magazine show bringing you news and insight, ideas and inspiration, from the heart of one small town. Produced by professionals, performed by rank amateurs, each quarterly show collects the best in local politics, poetry, nature, and music—together with three terse but edgy talks that will change the way you view the town you thought you knew.  A cross between TED Talks and The Moth combined with radio shows like This American Life and Snap Judgement, we bring the snap and sparkle of the city combined with the whiff of fertilizer from Hadley, intellectual vigor combined with back-fence gossip, colorful local art combined with nano-technology.

Premiers September 19 at the Eric Carle Museum theater. Tickets are expected to go quickly, so reserve yours today by visiting http://amherstlive.com.

Friday
1:57pm
permalink
150 years ago, the Battle of Gettysburg was over, Lee’s army in retreat, allowed without injunction by Meade to march back to Virginia [with over 15,000 Federal prisoners].
My uncle Eppa Hunton was in a carriage for the wounded with the wagon train headed south. 190 out of his 205 soldiers in his 8th Virginia Infantry were lost.  He would spend 6 weeks at his home with his wife and 8 year-old son recovering from his wounds and then rejoin his reconstituted brigade with Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.  
Eppa had strong feelings about the loss at Gettysburg.  He considered it the beginning of the end of the Confederate States of America.  He laid blame firmly at the feet of General Longstreet, his Corps commander.  Longstreet would go on after the war to be a leading Republican and Eppa held him in great disregard.  From his journal…

It is beyond dispute, it seems to me, that if Longstreet had made the attack earlier in the morning, even with Pickett’s Division and the North Carolina Division, he must have captured Meade’s position and driven him from Cemetery Ridge. It seems equally clear that if, when he did make the attack late in the day, he had supported Pickett by the rest of his corps consisting of two divisions, and by a part of Hill’s corps - or all consisting of two divisions, and by a part of Hill’s corps - or all of it, if necessary - even at that late hour he would have penetrated and held the lines of Meade; and General Lee’s idea was that if he could divide Meade’s army by penetrating the line at the left center, he would drive him in confusion from his position, and the Confederate Cavalry on the right and left of his flanks would follow up the advantage, and he would gain a glorious victory, which as he told me on the march in Clarke County, would probably result in the independence of the Confederate Government. 
It is very sad to contemplate our failure at Gettysburg. It is sad to think of the loss of so many heroes as fell at Gettysburg, even if their death accomplished a great victory; but when their death accomplished nothing, it makes the reflection still more sad. 

When he arrived back at Lee’s army after convalescing, he would learn that he had been promoted by Lee and Jefferson Davis from Colonel to Brigadier General.  He spent the fall and winter of 1863/64 in protection of Richmond as he reconstituted his brigade, which was wiped out in the charge at Gettysburg.  The time at Chaffin’s Farm outside of Richmond was calm enough that he sent from his wife and 8 year-old son, Eppa Jr.  From his journal…


While I was at Chaffin’s Farm there were two raids on Richmond which were very alarming, and I was ordered with my brigade to the defense of the city on both occasions. General Sheridan’s cavalry had become a very formidable body. The Federal Cavalry for the first half of the war was of little use, but Sheridan’s cavalry was composed of picked men from the whole army, and constituted a splendid body of horsemen and they launched a daring raid on the capitol.   General (Jeb) Stuart immediately started out to intercept Sheridan, and in a very considerable fight at the Yellow Tavern he was mortally wounded, and died the next day at the home of his brother-in-law on Grace Street near Monroe, Richmond, Va.   Poor General “Jeb” Stuart! What a magnificent man he was. he was the finest cavalry leader this continent ever saw. Forrest was his equal in fighting, and his equal in strategy, but was not his equal as an outpost commander. “Jeb” Stuart was the best “eyes and ears” that the army ever had. He has had no equal as a commander of cavalry since the field marshals of Napoleon. He was a warm, merry-hearted man, always ready to sing or dance or fight, and General Lee could not supply his place. 
During the first of these raids my wife and son went with me to Richmond and stayed at the house of a relative of hers, Mrs. Harvey. I was two or three miles in front of the city, near the place where The Brook crosses Brook turnpike, guarding against this raid, and my wife started Eppa with a basket of provisions for me, prepared by herself and some ladies of Richmond. He didn’t know where I was - didn’t know in what direction to seek me, and nobody whom he met could tell him, but notwithstanding that I got my basket of provisions and enjoyed it very much.* The next time I was ordered out to meet this raid my place at Chaffin’s was taken by a brigade of home guards formed of the Department Clerks in Richmond. My wife and son were left at Chaffin’s under the care of the commanding officer. The commandant soon discovered Eppa and found that he was a Captain on my Staff. He immediately gave him promotion, making him Major, with a star on his collar - a most unfortunate thing for the boy, for when my brigade returned to Chaffin’s Farm the men all called him a militia Major, and it nearly killed him. He wished a thousand times that the star had never been put on his coat collar. 

But soon enough, Meade was replaced by Ulysses Grant, and the war took a very different path as Grant threw bodies against the Confederacy and the 8th Virginia was called into some of the bloodiest battles of the war.  The 8th was called away from the defense of Richmond to rejoin the remainder of Pickett’s Division in May 1864 where they fought Grant in the 2nd battle of Cold Harbor.  From Eppa’s journal…


On the 3rd of June, 1864, the battle of second Cold Harbor was fought. It was one of the bloodiest and hardest fought battles of the war. The Federal loss was 13,000; General lee’s loss was 1,000. This loss of Grant’s was incurred in distinct and separate charges of different corps. He became impatient and ordered a general charge along the whole line. His soldiers with one accord refused to make the charge. I have never seen dead bodies lay as thick as in front of our breast-works at second Cold Harbor. I got into a terrible place there. My brigade was ordered to send its smallest regiment to fill up a space in the line, and to hold the rest in reserve. Being held in reserve always means trouble. You are sure to be sent to the worst place along the line. Accordingly, in a short time I was ordered down to the right, some half a mile or three-quarters. The enemy had occupied a swamp which crossed our line and killed a good many of our men. I was ordered to protect that part of the line. When I reached there I found General Clingman, of North Carolina, occupying the line to the right of this swamp, but not up to it. I filled up that gap with my brigade, and the balance I formed at right angles down this swamp. My men were picked off by sharp-shooters from two directions. General Clingman sent word to General Hoke, who was in command of that part of the line, that if he did not drive the enemy from his front he would vacate the line. General Hoke sent word to me to drive the enemy from Clingman’s front. I replied that I would not do it; that I would unite with Clingman in a common movement and drive the enemy from his front and mine. General Hoke then sent me word to arrange for a joint movement with Clingman, and drive the enemy away. Clingman’s line was protected from sharp-shooters by traverses. I sent my dear friend and gallant Adjutant Charlie Linthicum, to Clingman to arrange for this joint assault on the enemy. In going around one of these traverses he was shot through the head and instantly killed. 
How I deplored his loss! I never supplied his place. He was the best Adjutant-General in the Army of Northern Virginia. Captain Ed. Fitzhugh succeeded him.
I abandoned this joint movement with Clingman and went down to see General Hoke on my left about three hundred yards. My men were falling all around me. I never made better speed in my life. I arranged with General Hoke that he should send out a strong skirmish line and attack the enemy in this swamp, on its right flank, and that I would detail every other man of my brigade, who would unite in this attack upon their position upon hearing his guns. This was executed splendidly and we got rid of the sharp-shooters in the swamp. That night I received orders from Hoke that upon hearing from Clingman before day the next morning, we were to vacate that line and retire to a line that had been constructed in the rear. I waited most anxiously for an hour or two before day for the message from Clingman. I at last discovered the first stroke of dawn, and hearing nothing from Clingman I sent to him to know if it was not time for him to move. To my surprise and indignation he had vacated the line and retired without notifying me, leaving our whole front open to the enemy. 

And then on to the battle of Dewey’s Bluff…

On the 16th of June, 1864, General Pickett was ordered to mark his division as rapidly as possible to save Dewey’s Bluff. This was across the James River from Chaffin’s Farm, and I was familiar with all the byroads, etc. I was ordered to take the lead and go through woods and cross the country without regard to roads, and get to Dewey’s Bluff as soon as possible. I think my march on that occasion was the fastest on record. We crossed the James River on a pontoon bridge, and found Dewey’s Bluff safe. We marched on down the Richmond and Petersburg Turnpike a mile or two below Dewey’s Bluff where we struck the enemy.
General Butler in the meantime had taken possession of Beauregard’s abandoned works and turned them on us. I was in front and when I struck the enemy, I ordered my brigade to left-face and charge. I have never seen anything done so handsomely. We drove the enemy past Beauregard’s abandoned works, and in their own line, and turned our works upon them. 
The other brigades of the division followed mine, and they fought on my right and left, and before night we had recaptured the whole of Beauregard’s abandoned line.
We remained in this fortified line for a long time. General Butler’s troops were opposed to us. Our skirmish lines were within 35 yards of each other at one time, and dear old General Lee rode around the lines with me on one occasion, and said, “Who are those people out yonder?” I said it was the Yankee skirmish line. He said, “What are they doing there? We are in the habit of believing this country belongs to us. Drive them away sir; drive them away.” I told him, “All right.” That night I made a night-attack on their skirmish line and did drive it away, some distance back. 

Eppa was impressed by Grant’s aggressive strategies that he witnessed in these battles, realizing that Grant’s superior numbers and willingness to use them would eventually catch up to Lee’s army.  But they pressed on, trying to save the capitol of the CSA, Richmond.  From his journal…


In the meantime Grant laid siege to Petersburg, and while he was not a brilliant military man, he was the first to conceive the best mode of subjugating the South. He saw that we could not supply the loss of our men, while he could get recruits to any number. He, therefore, determined that he would wear Lee out by attrition, and if he lost 10 men to Lee’s one, he saw that the end was certain, and that Lee must eventually surrender. Acting on this idea, he extended his line until General Lee’s line became so thin it was hardly able to resist attack. General Lee’s line at this time extended from in front of Richmond beyond Petersburg - a distance of nearly 35 miles. 
Three brigades of Pickett’s Division, which had been relieved by Mahone, were on the south side of James River; while my brigade returned to the north side. In March, 1865, General Lee had 35,000 men and Grant about 150,000. Pickett was ordered to Five Forks to meet the extended line of General Grant. I was ordered to report of General Lee on Hatcher’s Run. General Pickett had a good force of infantry and Fitzhugh Lee’s and William H. F. Lee’s cavalry. He drove the enemy back to Dinwiddie Courthouse. 
While Pickett was fighting near Dinwiddie Courthouse, on March 31, 1865, I, with two other small brigades was ordered out on the road which led to Five Forks, with the view of keeping communication with Pickett open. We had hardly formed our line of battle when a division of Warren’s Fifth corps marched upon us. We had no orders to attack, and my idea was to hold our ground and receive the attack from the enemy; but a Lieutenant in the 18th Regiment named Holland who had been promoted for gallantry, rushed out in front of his company and waving his sword said, “Follow me boys!” This was all the order that the three brigades had to charge, but they did charge, in magnificent style, and drove this division back to Gravelly Run, nearly a mile. 
I think every man in my brigade acted heroically in that charge, only a short time before the surrender. As we were driving the enemy, Captain E. C. Fitzhugh, my Adjutant, who had succeeded poor Linthicum, was struck in the forehead and down he fell. Colonel Green, of the 56th Regiment, said, “Poor 

Fitz! Forward Boys!” and on we went; but not long afterwards we were joined by Fitzhugh who was only stunned, and he continued in the charge General Lee was delighted at our success and sent word to me to hold my position, if possible, and sent Wise’s brigade to extend my line to the left. 
Warren sent out another division. I ordered my men to hold their fire until they came close. The order was obeyed, and when we opened upon this fresh division, the line of the enemy gave way and one-third of them broke and ran. The other two-thirds stood under fire, reorganize their line, and charge us with great gallantry. If we had not retired in great haste all of us would have been captured. I have rarely seen more gallantry than was displayed by Warren’s division on that occasion. 
We went back to the fortification at Hatcher’s Run. I had three bullet holes through my clothes in the fight. One bullet went through my flannel shirt. Its direction was changed by my sword belt which it pierced. Another struck my scabbard and bent it nearly double. When I reported to General Lee, he looked at my clothes all torn by the bullets, and said: “I wish you would sew those places up. I don’t like to see them.” I said, “General Lee allow me to go back home and see my wife and I will have them sewed up.” He said,”The idea of talking about going to see wives; it is perfectly ridiculous sir”; and was rather amused at it.
Pickett was driven back from Dinwiddie Courthouse to Five Forks. Sheridan was reinforced by Warren’s corps which I had intercepted, and Pickett suffered a terrible repulse. His command was all scattered in every direction. I was ordered by General Lee to go to his support, and to cross the fields, without regard to roads. He furnished me with a guide. We made a very rapid march. When I reached the rear of Pickett’s position at Five Forks - I could not hear where Pickett or his men were, but I did meet with some portion of Fitz Lee’s cavalry. I was joined that night by Bushrod Johnson with two brigades, and we were under his command. He was a Major General.** 
The next day we heard the melancholy news that Petersburg and Richmond had been evacuated and we began the mournful retreat towards Appomattox Courthouse. Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry was with us. It was several days before I met with and joined Pickett’s Division. The enemy pressed us very hard, and once, at least, I had to form line with my brigade for the cavalry to reorganize behind it. Bushrod Johnson became demoralized and I told Fitzhugh Lee that he must take command of the cavalry and infantry or we would all be captured. Lee did so and conducted the retreat very well. 

We came to a very deep stream, with a bridge across it, the enemy pressing us very hard. I was ordered by General Fitzhugh Lee to hold the enemy until all the command (both infantry and cavalry) had passed over the bridge, and when I attempted to cross, I had to fight on three sides. I had flankers out on each side, and a skirmish line in the rear. Captain Charles U. Williams, who was on General Corse’s Staff, witnessed this crossing, and he never ceased to talk about it. He said that I formed a hollow square and crossed the bridge in that formation, fighting on four sides.
We united with Pickett’s Division and marched on towards Appomattox. At Sailor’s Creek we were guarding a wagon train, and on the other side of the creek Colonel Huger had been attacked and lost some of his artillery. Pickett’s Division was ordered across the creek to recapture his artillery. We did recapture a portion of it, and formed our line of battle to resist Custer’s cavalry. Custer made very many gallant charges upon our line with his cavalry, but we had no trouble in repelling them. But every time we would face to the right and resume our retreat, Custer would charge us, and we would have to turn and fight. This was done that the infantry might surround us. 
My line was very thin - a single line - and the men not very near together. My dear and gallant friend General Terry rode up and asked me to lend him a regiment to extend his line. I told him I could not spare one. He said if he did not get a regiment he would be flanked. I sent him the 8th Regiment - the smallest I had - and had to increase the space between my soldiers to fill up the gap left. 
While we were fighting General Custer, I reported to General Pickett and to General Anderson that the enemy were surrounding us with infantry - I caught the gleam of their bayonets through a gap in the woods. When it was too late, General Anderson issued the order to Pickett, that his men should cut their way out the best they could; but every time we attempted to move forward Custer would charge, and we would have to turn and fight. 
While this was going on, some six or eight troopers of Custer’s had gotten in our rear. They made a charge on our line. This charge happened to be where General Pickett and his Staff were located, on horseback. They all ducked their heads down by their horses’ necks and galloped ingloriously to the rear. 

Gallant General Corse, who was always ready on such an occasion, faced one of his companies to the rear and killed the last man of them*. 

Eppa’s 8th Virginia was finally defeated and surrendered on April 6th, 1865, just south of Appomatox [3 days before Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia].  He surrendered to General George Custer [who would lose his own battle at Little Big Horn 12 years later].  From Eppa’s journal…


Very soon, the enemy’s infantry appeared in our rear, and my gallant brigade, fighting front and rear, was compelled to surrender; and to show the splendid metal of my dear soldiers, most of them broke their guns rather than surrender them. I surrendered to General Custer, and when he demanded my sword I threw it as far as I could into the sassafras bushes. It may be in that spot today. 

Thus ended my military career - on the 6th day of April, 1865, three days before the end came at Appomattox. I had been in command of the 8th Virginia Infantry, and no man in the army every had a better brigade than mine was. 
While we were making our dreary march as prisoners towards Petersburg, the melancholy news reached us early on the 10th of April that General Lee had surrendered on the 9th, at Appomattox. 
It is impossible for me to describe my feelings. I rejoice that I was not at Appomattox and did not see dear old General Lee riding through the ranks of his soldiers after the surrender, with tears streaming down his cheeks; it would almost have killed me. 

There upon that field at Appomattox, the Star of the Confederacy set forever. 

Eppa and a set of Confederate officers were sent to Boston Harbor to be imprisoned there.

I was in prison, sick, and had abundant time to look back over the past four years. Just four years before I had gone into the Confederate Army with the highest hopes of success. We had wonderful success on the field of battle. We had won the two battles at Manassas, Ball’s Bluff, Mechanicsville, Gaines’ Mill, Frazier’s Farm, the Wilderness, Chancellorsville, Spottsylvania Courthouse, first and second Cold Harbor, the fights below the Howlett House - down to the siege of Petersburg. 
The battle of Gettysburg was a failure; the battle of Seven Pines was hardly a success; the battle of Sharpsburg was pretty much of a drawn battle. Notwithstanding these brilliant successes of the Army of Northern Virginia, the resources of the South had given out. Our soldiers were bare-footed, almst naked and almost starved. General Grant when he found that he could not meet Lee with success in the open field, determined upon the very best course to end the war. He was a man without any brilliant military attainments, but essentially a man of hard, common, practical sense. He saw that he could lose 
ten men to Lee’s one, and still succeed. His losses could be supplied not only from the populous North, but from the world at large. General Lee’s army had exhausted the resources (both men and supplies) of the Confederacy. We had been many times charged in northern papers with “robbing the cradle and the grave” to fill our army. 
General Grant, therefore, determined upon the tactics of attrition to wear Lee out. It proved to be successful, and the Star of the Confederate States went down at Appomattox. 

Meanwhile, Eppa’s wife and son had found shelter with relatives, and did not know whether Eppa was dead or alive.  The family had traded their savings that were held in Virginia Bonds into Confederate Bonds in 1861, which were now worthless and the family was destitute.  From his journal…

Major General John W. Turner, of the Federal Army, and myself had been opposite to and fighting each other for months, below the Howlett House. We knew each other, though we had never met. He was the first Federal officer to go into Lynchburg after the surrender of General Lee. As soon as he heard that my wife and son were in the town and in very destitute circumstances, he sent one of his staff officers to my wife to tender to her General Turner’s purse and his services. I had then been captured and the only information my wife had of me was a statement published in some newspaper that I had been wounded, probably mortally, and captured. I was ill, but had not been wounded. She was a thoroughly loyal Confederate, as were almost all the women of the South, and was at that time especially bitter to the Yankees, and sent General Turner a curt refusal to accept his offer, and to others said that she and her son would starve before she would accept assistance from him. I was delighted at the spirit she showed, but felt very grateful to General Turner for his magnanimity. After years of inquiry, I found out where he was and wrote him the nicest letter I could frame, to which he replied in very pleasant terms. 
I could not hear from my wife for some time after reaching Fort Warren, nor did she hear from me. We wrote frequently, but the Confederate mail routes had been discontinued and those of the U. S. Government had not been established. My wife had united herself to the Episcopal Church during the war and was very much attached to her minister in Lynchburg, Mr. Kinkle. He was a most excellent man and an ardent Confederate. He soon, however, introduced into his service the prayer for the President of the United States. When this prayer was used, my wife and son always rose from their knees - they were not then and never were reconstructed. 
The banks of Lynchburg on the approach of the Federal Army, after the surrender of General Lee, loaned out their gold to people of character without security, taking notes from the borrowers. My wife through Mr. James H. Reid (our faithful friend) obtained a loan of $50.00. On this she lived until relief came. 
As soon as it was practicable my brother Silas went to Lynchburg and took my wife and son to the home of my sister, Mrs. Elizabeth Morehead, in Culpeper County. She was the wife of Lieutenant Morehead of the Confederate Cavalry, who commanded his company at the battle of Ball’s Bluff. They remained with my sister and my mother and my single sister Mary Brent, until I was released from prison.

Eppa was released from prison in September of 1865.  He returned to his beloved Virginia and restarted his law practice in Warrenton, Fauquier County.  He went on to serve as a Democrat in the U.S. Congress and then as U.S. Senator from Virgnia.  He never forgave General Longstreet for turning his back on “his Confederate bretheren” and becoming a Republican.
photo: Baer Tierkel

150 years ago, the Battle of Gettysburg was over, Lee’s army in retreat, allowed without injunction by Meade to march back to Virginia [with over 15,000 Federal prisoners].

My uncle Eppa Hunton was in a carriage for the wounded with the wagon train headed south. 190 out of his 205 soldiers in his 8th Virginia Infantry were lost.  He would spend 6 weeks at his home with his wife and 8 year-old son recovering from his wounds and then rejoin his reconstituted brigade with Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.  

Eppa had strong feelings about the loss at Gettysburg.  He considered it the beginning of the end of the Confederate States of America.  He laid blame firmly at the feet of General Longstreet, his Corps commander.  Longstreet would go on after the war to be a leading Republican and Eppa held him in great disregard.  From his journal…

It is beyond dispute, it seems to me, that if Longstreet had made the attack earlier in the morning, even with Pickett’s Division and the North Carolina Division, he must have captured Meade’s position and driven him from Cemetery Ridge. It seems equally clear that if, when he did make the attack late in the day, he had supported Pickett by the rest of his corps consisting of two divisions, and by a part of Hill’s corps - or all consisting of two divisions, and by a part of Hill’s corps - or all of it, if necessary - even at that late hour he would have penetrated and held the lines of Meade; and General Lee’s idea was that if he could divide Meade’s army by penetrating the line at the left center, he would drive him in confusion from his position, and the Confederate Cavalry on the right and left of his flanks would follow up the advantage, and he would gain a glorious victory, which as he told me on the march in Clarke County, would probably result in the independence of the Confederate Government. 

It is very sad to contemplate our failure at Gettysburg. It is sad to think of the loss of so many heroes as fell at Gettysburg, even if their death accomplished a great victory; but when their death accomplished nothing, it makes the reflection still more sad. 

When he arrived back at Lee’s army after convalescing, he would learn that he had been promoted by Lee and Jefferson Davis from Colonel to Brigadier General.  He spent the fall and winter of 1863/64 in protection of Richmond as he reconstituted his brigade, which was wiped out in the charge at Gettysburg.  The time at Chaffin’s Farm outside of Richmond was calm enough that he sent from his wife and 8 year-old son, Eppa Jr.  From his journal…

While I was at Chaffin’s Farm there were two raids on Richmond which were very alarming, and I was ordered with my brigade to the defense of the city on both occasions. General Sheridan’s cavalry had become a very formidable body. The Federal Cavalry for the first half of the war was of little use, but Sheridan’s cavalry was composed of picked men from the whole army, and constituted a splendid body of horsemen and they launched a daring raid on the capitol.   General (Jeb) Stuart immediately started out to intercept Sheridan, and in a very considerable fight at the Yellow Tavern he was mortally wounded, and died the next day at the home of his brother-in-law on Grace Street near Monroe, Richmond, Va.   Poor General “Jeb” Stuart! What a magnificent man he was. he was the finest cavalry leader this continent ever saw. Forrest was his equal in fighting, and his equal in strategy, but was not his equal as an outpost commander. “Jeb” Stuart was the best “eyes and ears” that the army ever had. He has had no equal as a commander of cavalry since the field marshals of Napoleon. He was a warm, merry-hearted man, always ready to sing or dance or fight, and General Lee could not supply his place. 

During the first of these raids my wife and son went with me to Richmond and stayed at the house of a relative of hers, Mrs. Harvey. I was two or three miles in front of the city, near the place where The Brook crosses Brook turnpike, guarding against this raid, and my wife started Eppa with a basket of provisions for me, prepared by herself and some ladies of Richmond. He didn’t know where I was - didn’t know in what direction to seek me, and nobody whom he met could tell him, but notwithstanding that I got my basket of provisions and enjoyed it very much.* The next time I was ordered out to meet this raid my place at Chaffin’s was taken by a brigade of home guards formed of the Department Clerks in Richmond. My wife and son were left at Chaffin’s under the care of the commanding officer. The commandant soon discovered Eppa and found that he was a Captain on my Staff. He immediately gave him promotion, making him Major, with a star on his collar - a most unfortunate thing for the boy, for when my brigade returned to Chaffin’s Farm the men all called him a militia Major, and it nearly killed him. He wished a thousand times that the star had never been put on his coat collar. 

But soon enough, Meade was replaced by Ulysses Grant, and the war took a very different path as Grant threw bodies against the Confederacy and the 8th Virginia was called into some of the bloodiest battles of the war.  The 8th was called away from the defense of Richmond to rejoin the remainder of Pickett’s Division in May 1864 where they fought Grant in the 2nd battle of Cold Harbor.  From Eppa’s journal…

On the 3rd of June, 1864, the battle of second Cold Harbor was fought. It was one of the bloodiest and hardest fought battles of the war. The Federal loss was 13,000; General lee’s loss was 1,000. This loss of Grant’s was incurred in distinct and separate charges of different corps. He became impatient and ordered a general charge along the whole line. His soldiers with one accord refused to make the charge. I have never seen dead bodies lay as thick as in front of our breast-works at second Cold Harbor. I got into a terrible place there. My brigade was ordered to send its smallest regiment to fill up a space in the line, and to hold the rest in reserve. Being held in reserve always means trouble. You are sure to be sent to the worst place along the line. Accordingly, in a short time I was ordered down to the right, some half a mile or three-quarters. The enemy had occupied a swamp which crossed our line and killed a good many of our men. I was ordered to protect that part of the line. When I reached there I found General Clingman, of North Carolina, occupying the line to the right of this swamp, but not up to it. I filled up that gap with my brigade, and the balance I formed at right angles down this swamp. My men were picked off by sharp-shooters from two directions. General Clingman sent word to General Hoke, who was in command of that part of the line, that if he did not drive the enemy from his front he would vacate the line. General Hoke sent word to me to drive the enemy from Clingman’s front. I replied that I would not do it; that I would unite with Clingman in a common movement and drive the enemy from his front and mine. General Hoke then sent me word to arrange for a joint movement with Clingman, and drive the enemy away. Clingman’s line was protected from sharp-shooters by traverses. I sent my dear friend and gallant Adjutant Charlie Linthicum, to Clingman to arrange for this joint assault on the enemy. In going around one of these traverses he was shot through the head and instantly killed. 

How I deplored his loss! I never supplied his place. He was the best Adjutant-General in the Army of Northern Virginia. Captain Ed. Fitzhugh succeeded him.

I abandoned this joint movement with Clingman and went down to see General Hoke on my left about three hundred yards. My men were falling all around me. I never made better speed in my life. I arranged with General Hoke that he should send out a strong skirmish line and attack the enemy in this swamp, on its right flank, and that I would detail every other man of my brigade, who would unite in this attack upon their position upon hearing his guns. This was executed splendidly and we got rid of the sharp-shooters in the swamp. That night I received orders from Hoke that upon hearing from Clingman before day the next morning, we were to vacate that line and retire to a line that had been constructed in the rear. I waited most anxiously for an hour or two before day for the message from Clingman. I at last discovered the first stroke of dawn, and hearing nothing from Clingman I sent to him to know if it was not time for him to move. To my surprise and indignation he had vacated the line and retired without notifying me, leaving our whole front open to the enemy. 

And then on to the battle of Dewey’s Bluff…

On the 16th of June, 1864, General Pickett was ordered to mark his division as rapidly as possible to save Dewey’s Bluff. This was across the James River from Chaffin’s Farm, and I was familiar with all the byroads, etc. I was ordered to take the lead and go through woods and cross the country without regard to roads, and get to Dewey’s Bluff as soon as possible. I think my march on that occasion was the fastest on record. We crossed the James River on a pontoon bridge, and found Dewey’s Bluff safe. We marched on down the Richmond and Petersburg Turnpike a mile or two below Dewey’s Bluff where we struck the enemy.

General Butler in the meantime had taken possession of Beauregard’s abandoned works and turned them on us. I was in front and when I struck the enemy, I ordered my brigade to left-face and charge. I have never seen anything done so handsomely. We drove the enemy past Beauregard’s abandoned works, and in their own line, and turned our works upon them. 

The other brigades of the division followed mine, and they fought on my right and left, and before night we had recaptured the whole of Beauregard’s abandoned line.

We remained in this fortified line for a long time. General Butler’s troops were opposed to us. Our skirmish lines were within 35 yards of each other at one time, and dear old General Lee rode around the lines with me on one occasion, and said, “Who are those people out yonder?” I said it was the Yankee skirmish line. He said, “What are they doing there? We are in the habit of believing this country belongs to us. Drive them away sir; drive them away.” I told him, “All right.” That night I made a night-attack on their skirmish line and did drive it away, some distance back. 

Eppa was impressed by Grant’s aggressive strategies that he witnessed in these battles, realizing that Grant’s superior numbers and willingness to use them would eventually catch up to Lee’s army.  But they pressed on, trying to save the capitol of the CSA, Richmond.  From his journal…

In the meantime Grant laid siege to Petersburg, and while he was not a brilliant military man, he was the first to conceive the best mode of subjugating the South. He saw that we could not supply the loss of our men, while he could get recruits to any number. He, therefore, determined that he would wear Lee out by attrition, and if he lost 10 men to Lee’s one, he saw that the end was certain, and that Lee must eventually surrender. Acting on this idea, he extended his line until General Lee’s line became so thin it was hardly able to resist attack. General Lee’s line at this time extended from in front of Richmond beyond Petersburg - a distance of nearly 35 miles. 

Three brigades of Pickett’s Division, which had been relieved by Mahone, were on the south side of James River; while my brigade returned to the north side. In March, 1865, General Lee had 35,000 men and Grant about 150,000. Pickett was ordered to Five Forks to meet the extended line of General Grant. I was ordered to report of General Lee on Hatcher’s Run. General Pickett had a good force of infantry and Fitzhugh Lee’s and William H. F. Lee’s cavalry. He drove the enemy back to Dinwiddie Courthouse. 

While Pickett was fighting near Dinwiddie Courthouse, on March 31, 1865, I, with two other small brigades was ordered out on the road which led to Five Forks, with the view of keeping communication with Pickett open. We had hardly formed our line of battle when a division of Warren’s Fifth corps marched upon us. We had no orders to attack, and my idea was to hold our ground and receive the attack from the enemy; but a Lieutenant in the 18th Regiment named Holland who had been promoted for gallantry, rushed out in front of his company and waving his sword said, “Follow me boys!” This was all the order that the three brigades had to charge, but they did charge, in magnificent style, and drove this division back to Gravelly Run, nearly a mile. 

I think every man in my brigade acted heroically in that charge, only a short time before the surrender. As we were driving the enemy, Captain E. C. Fitzhugh, my Adjutant, who had succeeded poor Linthicum, was struck in the forehead and down he fell. Colonel Green, of the 56th Regiment, said, “Poor 

Fitz! Forward Boys!” and on we went; but not long afterwards we were joined by Fitzhugh who was only stunned, and he continued in the charge General Lee was delighted at our success and sent word to me to hold my position, if possible, and sent Wise’s brigade to extend my line to the left. 

Warren sent out another division. I ordered my men to hold their fire until they came close. The order was obeyed, and when we opened upon this fresh division, the line of the enemy gave way and one-third of them broke and ran. The other two-thirds stood under fire, reorganize their line, and charge us with great gallantry. If we had not retired in great haste all of us would have been captured. I have rarely seen more gallantry than was displayed by Warren’s division on that occasion. 

We went back to the fortification at Hatcher’s Run. I had three bullet holes through my clothes in the fight. One bullet went through my flannel shirt. Its direction was changed by my sword belt which it pierced. Another struck my scabbard and bent it nearly double. When I reported to General Lee, he looked at my clothes all torn by the bullets, and said: “I wish you would sew those places up. I don’t like to see them.” I said, “General Lee allow me to go back home and see my wife and I will have them sewed up.” He said,”The idea of talking about going to see wives; it is perfectly ridiculous sir”; and was rather amused at it.

Pickett was driven back from Dinwiddie Courthouse to Five Forks. Sheridan was reinforced by Warren’s corps which I had intercepted, and Pickett suffered a terrible repulse. His command was all scattered in every direction. I was ordered by General Lee to go to his support, and to cross the fields, without regard to roads. He furnished me with a guide. We made a very rapid march. When I reached the rear of Pickett’s position at Five Forks - I could not hear where Pickett or his men were, but I did meet with some portion of Fitz Lee’s cavalry. I was joined that night by Bushrod Johnson with two brigades, and we were under his command. He was a Major General.** 

The next day we heard the melancholy news that Petersburg and Richmond had been evacuated and we began the mournful retreat towards Appomattox Courthouse. Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry was with us. It was several days before I met with and joined Pickett’s Division. The enemy pressed us very hard, and once, at least, I had to form line with my brigade for the cavalry to reorganize behind it. Bushrod Johnson became demoralized and I told Fitzhugh Lee that he must take command of the cavalry and infantry or we would all be captured. Lee did so and conducted the retreat very well. 

We came to a very deep stream, with a bridge across it, the enemy pressing us very hard. I was ordered by General Fitzhugh Lee to hold the enemy until all the command (both infantry and cavalry) had passed over the bridge, and when I attempted to cross, I had to fight on three sides. I had flankers out on each side, and a skirmish line in the rear. Captain Charles U. Williams, who was on General Corse’s Staff, witnessed this crossing, and he never ceased to talk about it. He said that I formed a hollow square and crossed the bridge in that formation, fighting on four sides.

We united with Pickett’s Division and marched on towards Appomattox. At Sailor’s Creek we were guarding a wagon train, and on the other side of the creek Colonel Huger had been attacked and lost some of his artillery. Pickett’s Division was ordered across the creek to recapture his artillery. We did recapture a portion of it, and formed our line of battle to resist Custer’s cavalry. Custer made very many gallant charges upon our line with his cavalry, but we had no trouble in repelling them. But every time we would face to the right and resume our retreat, Custer would charge us, and we would have to turn and fight. This was done that the infantry might surround us. 

My line was very thin - a single line - and the men not very near together. My dear and gallant friend General Terry rode up and asked me to lend him a regiment to extend his line. I told him I could not spare one. He said if he did not get a regiment he would be flanked. I sent him the 8th Regiment - the smallest I had - and had to increase the space between my soldiers to fill up the gap left. 

While we were fighting General Custer, I reported to General Pickett and to General Anderson that the enemy were surrounding us with infantry - I caught the gleam of their bayonets through a gap in the woods. When it was too late, General Anderson issued the order to Pickett, that his men should cut their way out the best they could; but every time we attempted to move forward Custer would charge, and we would have to turn and fight. 

While this was going on, some six or eight troopers of Custer’s had gotten in our rear. They made a charge on our line. This charge happened to be where General Pickett and his Staff were located, on horseback. They all ducked their heads down by their horses’ necks and galloped ingloriously to the rear. 

Gallant General Corse, who was always ready on such an occasion, faced one of his companies to the rear and killed the last man of them*. 

Eppa’s 8th Virginia was finally defeated and surrendered on April 6th, 1865, just south of Appomatox [3 days before Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia].  He surrendered to General George Custer [who would lose his own battle at Little Big Horn 12 years later].  From Eppa’s journal…

Very soon, the enemy’s infantry appeared in our rear, and my gallant brigade, fighting front and rear, was compelled to surrender; and to show the splendid metal of my dear soldiers, most of them broke their guns rather than surrender them. I surrendered to General Custer, and when he demanded my sword I threw it as far as I could into the sassafras bushes. It may be in that spot today. 

Thus ended my military career - on the 6th day of April, 1865, three days before the end came at Appomattox. I had been in command of the 8th Virginia Infantry, and no man in the army every had a better brigade than mine was. 

While we were making our dreary march as prisoners towards Petersburg, the melancholy news reached us early on the 10th of April that General Lee had surrendered on the 9th, at Appomattox. 

It is impossible for me to describe my feelings. I rejoice that I was not at Appomattox and did not see dear old General Lee riding through the ranks of his soldiers after the surrender, with tears streaming down his cheeks; it would almost have killed me. 

There upon that field at Appomattox, the Star of the Confederacy set forever. 

Eppa and a set of Confederate officers were sent to Boston Harbor to be imprisoned there.

I was in prison, sick, and had abundant time to look back over the past four years. Just four years before I had gone into the Confederate Army with the highest hopes of success. We had wonderful success on the field of battle. We had won the two battles at Manassas, Ball’s Bluff, Mechanicsville, Gaines’ Mill, Frazier’s Farm, the Wilderness, Chancellorsville, Spottsylvania Courthouse, first and second Cold Harbor, the fights below the Howlett House - down to the siege of Petersburg. 

The battle of Gettysburg was a failure; the battle of Seven Pines was hardly a success; the battle of Sharpsburg was pretty much of a drawn battle. Notwithstanding these brilliant successes of the Army of Northern Virginia, the resources of the South had given out. Our soldiers were bare-footed, almst naked and almost starved. General Grant when he found that he could not meet Lee with success in the open field, determined upon the very best course to end the war. He was a man without any brilliant military attainments, but essentially a man of hard, common, practical sense. He saw that he could lose 

ten men to Lee’s one, and still succeed. His losses could be supplied not only from the populous North, but from the world at large. General Lee’s army had exhausted the resources (both men and supplies) of the Confederacy. We had been many times charged in northern papers with “robbing the cradle and the grave” to fill our army. 

General Grant, therefore, determined upon the tactics of attrition to wear Lee out. It proved to be successful, and the Star of the Confederate States went down at Appomattox. 

Meanwhile, Eppa’s wife and son had found shelter with relatives, and did not know whether Eppa was dead or alive.  The family had traded their savings that were held in Virginia Bonds into Confederate Bonds in 1861, which were now worthless and the family was destitute.  From his journal…

Major General John W. Turner, of the Federal Army, and myself had been opposite to and fighting each other for months, below the Howlett House. We knew each other, though we had never met. He was the first Federal officer to go into Lynchburg after the surrender of General Lee. As soon as he heard that my wife and son were in the town and in very destitute circumstances, he sent one of his staff officers to my wife to tender to her General Turner’s purse and his services. I had then been captured and the only information my wife had of me was a statement published in some newspaper that I had been wounded, probably mortally, and captured. I was ill, but had not been wounded. She was a thoroughly loyal Confederate, as were almost all the women of the South, and was at that time especially bitter to the Yankees, and sent General Turner a curt refusal to accept his offer, and to others said that she and her son would starve before she would accept assistance from him. I was delighted at the spirit she showed, but felt very grateful to General Turner for his magnanimity. After years of inquiry, I found out where he was and wrote him the nicest letter I could frame, to which he replied in very pleasant terms. 

I could not hear from my wife for some time after reaching Fort Warren, nor did she hear from me. We wrote frequently, but the Confederate mail routes had been discontinued and those of the U. S. Government had not been established. My wife had united herself to the Episcopal Church during the war and was very much attached to her minister in Lynchburg, Mr. Kinkle. He was a most excellent man and an ardent Confederate. He soon, however, introduced into his service the prayer for the President of the United States. When this prayer was used, my wife and son always rose from their knees - they were not then and never were reconstructed. 

The banks of Lynchburg on the approach of the Federal Army, after the surrender of General Lee, loaned out their gold to people of character without security, taking notes from the borrowers. My wife through Mr. James H. Reid (our faithful friend) obtained a loan of $50.00. On this she lived until relief came. 

As soon as it was practicable my brother Silas went to Lynchburg and took my wife and son to the home of my sister, Mrs. Elizabeth Morehead, in Culpeper County. She was the wife of Lieutenant Morehead of the Confederate Cavalry, who commanded his company at the battle of Ball’s Bluff. They remained with my sister and my mother and my single sister Mary Brent, until I was released from prison.

Eppa was released from prison in September of 1865.  He returned to his beloved Virginia and restarted his law practice in Warrenton, Fauquier County.  He went on to serve as a Democrat in the U.S. Congress and then as U.S. Senator from Virgnia.  He never forgave General Longstreet for turning his back on “his Confederate bretheren” and becoming a Republican.

Wednesday
1:51pm
permalink
150 years ago today, July 3rd, the final day of the fight at Gettysburg.  I’ll just let Uncle Eppa tell his story from his journal of that day…

The 8th, still under my command with a strength of 205, marched at an early hour and gained the desired position before eight o’clock. Longstreet was ordered by General Lee to make the attack at an early hour with the whole of his corps (which embraced four divisions) and a part of Hill’s corps, and all of it, if necessary. About twelve o’clock in the day we were ordered into line of battle just behind Seminary Ridge, and were to a great extent protected from the artillery fire of the enemy. Between twelve and one o’clock our artillery, consisting of 250 guns, opened on the enemy. It was replied to by Meade’s 300 guns, the greatest artillery duel that ever occurred on this continent. It was ordered that General Alexander, who was in command of our artillery, should keep up the cannonade until the enemy were demoralized by it, and then Longstreet was to make his charge. 
After a cannonading of about three hours Alexander reported that if the charge was to be made, then this was the time to make it, and Pickett’s Division and Pender’s Division of North Carolinians started in this charge. 
Pickett’s Division consisted of only three small brigades including mine. Corse, with his brigade, was left at Hanover Junction. Instead of charging with his whole corps and with a part of Hill’s, Longstreet charged with these two small divisions, Pickett’s and Heth’s. 
The North Carolina Division had been engaged in a furious fight the day before, and had lost heavily, and of course was not in high feather. We charged from half a mile to three-quarters before we reached the enemy’s line. All the way we were under a furious cannonade from the front and from Little Round Top, and soon were in reach of the musketry fire from Meade’s lines. Our attack was made upon Meade’s left center, which General Lee believed (and correctly believed) was the weakest point in his line. After going about two-thirds of the way Kemper, who was on horse-back, was shot down.
When we were charging down towards Cemetery Ridge I passed Will Adams, a gallant soldier of my regiment, who was wounded. He looked into my face and said, “Colonel, I’m hit.” I shall never forget his appealing look, and the confidence in me which it seemed to evidence. It seemed to say to me that I would see that he was properly cared for and his wound dressed. If he had died, that look would have haunted me as long as I lived. I called to a soldier and told him to take Adams from the field. I thank God he lived, and is now a prosperous merchant in Middleburg, Loudoun County.
I saw Major Spessard of the 28th Regiment sitting on the ground holding a youth’s head in his lap. As I approached, Major Spessard looked up and said, “Look at my poor boy, Colonel.” He must have been dead then, for I saw him kiss him tenderly and gently lay his head on the ground. Then the Major rose to his feet, put his sword to his shoulder and ordered “Forward boys!” and continued in the charge. Could there be greater heroism? 
In the charge I was shot, through the right leg and my horse mortally wounded.  Hummer,  my courier, assisted me from my horse, and then shot the steed to put him out of his agony.  He then loaded me in an ambulance and I was taken to a field hospital and my wound dressed.
General Lee issued an order that all officers should go into this charge on foot, so as to expose themselves as little as possible. Only four officers went into the charge on horseback including myself, of whom Garnett was killed, Kemper desperately wounded, and myself wounded and my horse killed. The fourth was a Colonel whose name I do not recall.  I was on horse-back because I was not physically able to make the charge on foot. I was suffering intensely with my fistula, and could not, if my life depended on it, have made that charge on foot. 
The division went forward heroically, its ranks being thinned every moment, but immediately supplied by those from the rear. About the time I was wounded, I looked to the left to see what was being done by the North Carolina Division. It was then disintegrating, and according to the best information never got up to the enemy’s lines. Pickett’s three brigades rushed gallantly forward. Garnett was killed when near the front line of the enemy, gallantly leading his men. They got up to within a few yards of the first line of the enemy, and the gallant Armistead with his hat on his sword, ordered, his men to follow him, and he and the few survivors of the three Brigades captured the first line of the enemy, but Armistead was killed. At this time Federal reinforcements came up, and the few gallant men who had captured the line were themselves either killed or captured. 

The Berkeleys were all wounded, and three of them captured. They were among those gallant men of my regiment who charged with Armistead to the second line of Meade’s fortification. Lieutenant-Colonel Edmund Berkeley was wounded, but not seriously and made his escape. 

The losses in my brigade and the whole of Pickett’s Division were fearful. Every field officer was shot down, except one. Col. C. S. Peyton, of the 19th Regiment, who had lost his arm in a previous battle was the only field officer left, and he was in command of the brigade. My dear old regiment was commanded by a Lieutenant. It laid down under fire during the artillery duel 205 strong. Five of them were killed in the artillery duel, and 200 responded promptly and bravely to the order to charge. Once my wound was dressed, I improvised a pair of crutches and hobbled out to see who was left of my faithful and gallant regiment. Only 10 of those who went in responded to the roll call - 190 out of 200 were gone. 
It nearly broke my heart to look over the 10 surviving members of the gallant 8th Regiment, that had stood by me in so many battles, and obeyed my orders with so much alacrity. I put back into the ranks of the 8th Regiment the detailed men (the cooks and the ambulance men), and it made the regiment about 25 strong. 

I have frequently been invited to go over the battlefield of Gettysburg, but I never could summon the courage to do so. If I were to go over the line of our charge I would say, “Here fell Captain Green”; “Here fell Captain Bissell”’ “Here fell Captain Grayson”; “Here fell Captain Ayres” - and a host of others. It would nearly kill me to see where so many brave men fell - all of them among the best friends I ever had. 
Thus ended the charge of the 3rd of July - a charge that will go down in history as the most gallant ever made by any army. 
I sent out and “impressed” a buggy, and put my war-horse “Morgan” to it – I was not riding Morgan in the charge - and the next morning Colonel Berkeley and myself in the buggy commenced our return to Virginia with the wagon train. General Lee commenced his retreat the same day, was not pressed by General Meade, and took his army safely across the Potomac into Virginia.
Although our loss was very severe, and the loss of the battle in its consequences fatal to us, General Lee brought off with him ten or twelve thousand prisoners, and some material of war captured. Colonel Berkeley and I made our way to Clarke County. He stopped with his friend John Smith, and I stopped for a few days with my brother-in-law, James V. Weir. I soon started to join my dear wife and my dear son, who were then at New Glasgow, in the County of Amherst, boarding with my friend Mr. P. D. Lipscombe and his wife. 
I believed that General Kemper was dead. I heard they were making his coffin when I left Gettysburg. When I passed through Madison Courthouse (his home) I heard a rumor that he still lived, and after awhile he came back to the City of Richmond, and though unable to do field duty, rendered valuable service to the Confederacy. 
When I reached the station three or four miles from New Glasgow, there were several other wounded Confederates there, and no conveyance. We could not walk, and we had to wait until we could send to the town for a wagon. The news soon reached my wife and son that I was at the depot, and my little boy, then eight years old, ran with young Lipscombe almost down to the depot to meet me. My wife was soon in my arms. She had suffered all the privations of war, with a heroism equal to the soldier in the field, and up to that time, and to the end of the war, I never heard a complaint from her. 
I was about six weeks absent from my regiment, by reason of my wound, but as soon as I felt able to do duty, I returned to it. 
photo: Baer Tierkel

150 years ago today, July 3rd, the final day of the fight at Gettysburg.  I’ll just let Uncle Eppa tell his story from his journal of that day…

The 8th, still under my command with a strength of 205, marched at an early hour and gained the desired position before eight o’clock. Longstreet was ordered by General Lee to make the attack at an early hour with the whole of his corps (which embraced four divisions) and a part of Hill’s corps, and all of it, if necessary. About twelve o’clock in the day we were ordered into line of battle just behind Seminary Ridge, and were to a great extent protected from the artillery fire of the enemy. Between twelve and one o’clock our artillery, consisting of 250 guns, opened on the enemy. It was replied to by Meade’s 300 guns, the greatest artillery duel that ever occurred on this continent. It was ordered that General Alexander, who was in command of our artillery, should keep up the cannonade until the enemy were demoralized by it, and then Longstreet was to make his charge. 

After a cannonading of about three hours Alexander reported that if the charge was to be made, then this was the time to make it, and Pickett’s Division and Pender’s Division of North Carolinians started in this charge. 

Pickett’s Division consisted of only three small brigades including mine. Corse, with his brigade, was left at Hanover Junction. Instead of charging with his whole corps and with a part of Hill’s, Longstreet charged with these two small divisions, Pickett’s and Heth’s. 

The North Carolina Division had been engaged in a furious fight the day before, and had lost heavily, and of course was not in high feather. We charged from half a mile to three-quarters before we reached the enemy’s line. All the way we were under a furious cannonade from the front and from Little Round Top, and soon were in reach of the musketry fire from Meade’s lines. Our attack was made upon Meade’s left center, which General Lee believed (and correctly believed) was the weakest point in his line. After going about two-thirds of the way Kemper, who was on horse-back, was shot down.

When we were charging down towards Cemetery Ridge I passed Will Adams, a gallant soldier of my regiment, who was wounded. He looked into my face and said, “Colonel, I’m hit.” I shall never forget his appealing look, and the confidence in me which it seemed to evidence. It seemed to say to me that I would see that he was properly cared for and his wound dressed. If he had died, that look would have haunted me as long as I lived. I called to a soldier and told him to take Adams from the field. I thank God he lived, and is now a prosperous merchant in Middleburg, Loudoun County.

I saw Major Spessard of the 28th Regiment sitting on the ground holding a youth’s head in his lap. As I approached, Major Spessard looked up and said, “Look at my poor boy, Colonel.” He must have been dead then, for I saw him kiss him tenderly and gently lay his head on the ground. Then the Major rose to his feet, put his sword to his shoulder and ordered “Forward boys!” and continued in the charge. Could there be greater heroism? 

In the charge I was shot, through the right leg and my horse mortally wounded.  Hummer,  my courier, assisted me from my horse, and then shot the steed to put him out of his agony.  He then loaded me in an ambulance and I was taken to a field hospital and my wound dressed.

General Lee issued an order that all officers should go into this charge on foot, so as to expose themselves as little as possible. Only four officers went into the charge on horseback including myself, of whom Garnett was killed, Kemper desperately wounded, and myself wounded and my horse killed. The fourth was a Colonel whose name I do not recall.  I was on horse-back because I was not physically able to make the charge on foot. I was suffering intensely with my fistula, and could not, if my life depended on it, have made that charge on foot.

The division went forward heroically, its ranks being thinned every moment, but immediately supplied by those from the rear. About the time I was wounded, I looked to the left to see what was being done by the North Carolina Division. It was then disintegrating, and according to the best information never got up to the enemy’s lines. Pickett’s three brigades rushed gallantly forward. Garnett was killed when near the front line of the enemy, gallantly leading his men. They got up to within a few yards of the first line of the enemy, and the gallant Armistead with his hat on his sword, ordered, his men to follow him, and he and the few survivors of the three Brigades captured the first line of the enemy, but Armistead was killed. At this time Federal reinforcements came up, and the few gallant men who had captured the line were themselves either killed or captured. 

The Berkeleys were all wounded, and three of them captured. They were among those gallant men of my regiment who charged with Armistead to the second line of Meade’s fortification. Lieutenant-Colonel Edmund Berkeley was wounded, but not seriously and made his escape. 

The losses in my brigade and the whole of Pickett’s Division were fearful. Every field officer was shot down, except one. Col. C. S. Peyton, of the 19th Regiment, who had lost his arm in a previous battle was the only field officer left, and he was in command of the brigade. My dear old regiment was commanded by a Lieutenant. It laid down under fire during the artillery duel 205 strong. Five of them were killed in the artillery duel, and 200 responded promptly and bravely to the order to charge. Once my wound was dressed, I improvised a pair of crutches and hobbled out to see who was left of my faithful and gallant regiment. Only 10 of those who went in responded to the roll call - 190 out of 200 were gone. 

It nearly broke my heart to look over the 10 surviving members of the gallant 8th Regiment, that had stood by me in so many battles, and obeyed my orders with so much alacrity. I put back into the ranks of the 8th Regiment the detailed men (the cooks and the ambulance men), and it made the regiment about 25 strong. 

I have frequently been invited to go over the battlefield of Gettysburg, but I never could summon the courage to do so. If I were to go over the line of our charge I would say, “Here fell Captain Green”; “Here fell Captain Bissell”’ “Here fell Captain Grayson”; “Here fell Captain Ayres” - and a host of others. It would nearly kill me to see where so many brave men fell - all of them among the best friends I ever had. 

Thus ended the charge of the 3rd of July - a charge that will go down in history as the most gallant ever made by any army. 

I sent out and “impressed” a buggy, and put my war-horse “Morgan” to it – I was not riding Morgan in the charge - and the next morning Colonel Berkeley and myself in the buggy commenced our return to Virginia with the wagon train. General Lee commenced his retreat the same day, was not pressed by General Meade, and took his army safely across the Potomac into Virginia.

Although our loss was very severe, and the loss of the battle in its consequences fatal to us, General Lee brought off with him ten or twelve thousand prisoners, and some material of war captured. Colonel Berkeley and I made our way to Clarke County. He stopped with his friend John Smith, and I stopped for a few days with my brother-in-law, James V. Weir. I soon started to join my dear wife and my dear son, who were then at New Glasgow, in the County of Amherst, boarding with my friend Mr. P. D. Lipscombe and his wife. 

I believed that General Kemper was dead. I heard they were making his coffin when I left Gettysburg. When I passed through Madison Courthouse (his home) I heard a rumor that he still lived, and after awhile he came back to the City of Richmond, and though unable to do field duty, rendered valuable service to the Confederacy. 

When I reached the station three or four miles from New Glasgow, there were several other wounded Confederates there, and no conveyance. We could not walk, and we had to wait until we could send to the town for a wagon. The news soon reached my wife and son that I was at the depot, and my little boy, then eight years old, ran with young Lipscombe almost down to the depot to meet me. My wife was soon in my arms. She had suffered all the privations of war, with a heroism equal to the soldier in the field, and up to that time, and to the end of the war, I never heard a complaint from her. 

I was about six weeks absent from my regiment, by reason of my wound, but as soon as I felt able to do duty, I returned to it. 

Tuesday
7:24pm
permalink
150 years ago today, Eppa Hunton (my great great great Uncle) and the 8th Virginia Infantry, along with the rest of Pickett’s Division, were dispatched from Chambersburg north to join the fight at Gettysburg.  From Eppa’s Journal…

"I, in command of the 8th, started on the morning of the 2nd of July for Gettysburg. Just out of town we passed the house of Mr. Alexander K. McClure. The ladies of his family, and perhaps some of the neighbors, all came out to the gate to see the soldiers pass, and they did not taunt us with any insults, or look unkindly upon us. I was sorry to hear that later in the war his house and all of his property was destroyed, and his farm devastated. He was a real good man, and notwithstanding the injuries he received at our hands, spent years of his time after the war, personally and through the newspaper which he edited in trying to bring back good feeling between the North and the South. I met him more than once and was so much pleased with him that I expressed my great regret that his property had been destroyed by our soldiers. We marched very rapidly towards Gettysburg, making twenty-three miles that day - probably one of the longest marches of the war. We soon heard of the fighting that had taken place at Gettysburg on the 1st of July. Our success had been very great. The action was brought on without General Lee’s orders. His intention was to fight at Cash Town, six miles southeast of Gettysburg and on this side of South Mountain, but Ewell had accidentally encountered quite a force of the enemy at Gettysburg, the fight commenced, reinforcements on both sides were brought up, and a heavy battle ensued. This resulted entirely in our favor. We drove the enemy and captured six to seven thousand prisoners. General Gordan says that he was driving the enemy from Seminary Ridge when he was ordered by Ewell to retire. He disobeyed the first order, but had to retire when he got the second. He said that if left alone he would have driven the enemy from the ridge and occupied it himself."

A note from Eppa’s son was added to his journal in later years about the McClure House…

My father and Major Taylor Scott were on a train coming from Washington to Richmond to the unveiling of the Pickett monument in Hollywood. They were discussing the Gettysburg campaign and my father was trying to recall the name of the owner of this house, near Gettysburg. The gentleman in the seat ahead of them turned and very courteously asked their pardon for listening to their conversation, but said he was so much interested he could not help it. He said that he was the owner of that house and he was Alexander K. McClure. 


This distinguished and influential Northern man, the editor of the Philadelphia Times, was going to Richmond to avail himself of this opportunity to try to diminish the intense feeling of hostility between the sections. My father spent much of his time while in Richmond with him and I have frequently heard father speak with enthusiasm of this charming and delightful gentleman, this patriotic American. 

Uncle Eppa continues about July 2nd in his journal…

"Pickett’s Division, including my brigade, reached the vicinity of Gettysburg about night on the 2nd, very much worn down by the march. General Lee ordered Longstreet to take Pickett’s Division to unite with the rest of his corps on the right of our army, and as I have said, he ordered him to make this move early in the morning of July 3rd." 
photo: Baer Tierkel

150 years ago today, Eppa Hunton (my great great great Uncle) and the 8th Virginia Infantry, along with the rest of Pickett’s Division, were dispatched from Chambersburg north to join the fight at Gettysburg.  From Eppa’s Journal…

"I, in command of the 8th, started on the morning of the 2nd of July for Gettysburg. Just out of town we passed the house of Mr. Alexander K. McClure. The ladies of his family, and perhaps some of the neighbors, all came out to the gate to see the soldiers pass, and they did not taunt us with any insults, or look unkindly upon us. I was sorry to hear that later in the war his house and all of his property was destroyed, and his farm devastated. He was a real good man, and notwithstanding the injuries he received at our hands, spent years of his time after the war, personally and through the newspaper which he edited in trying to bring back good feeling between the North and the South. I met him more than once and was so much pleased with him that I expressed my great regret that his property had been destroyed by our soldiers. We marched very rapidly towards Gettysburg, making twenty-three miles that day - probably one of the longest marches of the war. We soon heard of the fighting that had taken place at Gettysburg on the 1st of July. Our success had been very great. The action was brought on without General Lee’s orders. His intention was to fight at Cash Town, six miles southeast of Gettysburg and on this side of South Mountain, but Ewell had accidentally encountered quite a force of the enemy at Gettysburg, the fight commenced, reinforcements on both sides were brought up, and a heavy battle ensued. This resulted entirely in our favor. We drove the enemy and captured six to seven thousand prisoners. General Gordan says that he was driving the enemy from Seminary Ridge when he was ordered by Ewell to retire. He disobeyed the first order, but had to retire when he got the second. He said that if left alone he would have driven the enemy from the ridge and occupied it himself."

A note from Eppa’s son was added to his journal in later years about the McClure House…

My father and Major Taylor Scott were on a train coming from Washington to Richmond to the unveiling of the Pickett monument in Hollywood. They were discussing the Gettysburg campaign and my father was trying to recall the name of the owner of this house, near Gettysburg. The gentleman in the seat ahead of them turned and very courteously asked their pardon for listening to their conversation, but said he was so much interested he could not help it. He said that he was the owner of that house and he was Alexander K. McClure. 

This distinguished and influential Northern man, the editor of the Philadelphia Times, was going to Richmond to avail himself of this opportunity to try to diminish the intense feeling of hostility between the sections. My father spent much of his time while in Richmond with him and I have frequently heard father speak with enthusiasm of this charming and delightful gentleman, this patriotic American. 

Uncle Eppa continues about July 2nd in his journal…

"Pickett’s Division, including my brigade, reached the vicinity of Gettysburg about night on the 2nd, very much worn down by the march. General Lee ordered Longstreet to take Pickett’s Division to unite with the rest of his corps on the right of our army, and as I have said, he ordered him to make this move early in the morning of July 3rd." 

Monday
3:26pm
permalink
150 years ago today, July 1st, Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia was looking for a fight in their invasion of Pennsylvania, but expected the battle in Cash Town, PA.  But Ewell’s Division would happen accidentally upon McClellan’s huge Federal Army (thanks to the absence of the advance eyes of JEB Stuart’s cavalry), in a small town called Gettysburg.
While Ewell was being surprised, Pickett’s Division was tasked with destroying the Yankee infrastructure as they marched north into Pennsylvania.  This is how my Uncle Eppa and his 8th Virginia Infantry spent June 30th and July 1st, 1863.  From his journal…


We crossed the Potomac at Williamsport, and marched directly to Chambersburg. Here Pickett’s Division was held for a day or two to destroy the railroad and public property in the town. I was assigned to the duty of tearing up the road, destroying the turntable, and battering down the railroad houses. While I was engaged in this work, a man came out to me and asked me if I would spare his property, which was in one of the cars. I told him certainly, that we were not there to make war on private individuals. He was very grateful, and invited me and a half a dozen others into his house to take a drink. While we were in the dining-room taking a drink, his wife came in, in a perfect fury, and said to him, “How dare you to bring rebels into my house to take a drink? I will see that you are punished for this.” But notwithstanding her rage, we all took our drink. 

And thus, as Ewell’s Division was engaged to the north in Gettysburg - winning the day on the field for the Confederates and taking over 7,000 Federal prisoners, Uncle Eppa was “taking a drink” in Chambersburg with the rest of Pickett’s Division.  Their restbit would be short, the next day they would quick-march 25 miles north to Gettysburg and mostly die on July 3rd.
photo: Baer Tierkel

150 years ago today, July 1st, Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia was looking for a fight in their invasion of Pennsylvania, but expected the battle in Cash Town, PA.  But Ewell’s Division would happen accidentally upon McClellan’s huge Federal Army (thanks to the absence of the advance eyes of JEB Stuart’s cavalry), in a small town called Gettysburg.

While Ewell was being surprised, Pickett’s Division was tasked with destroying the Yankee infrastructure as they marched north into Pennsylvania.  This is how my Uncle Eppa and his 8th Virginia Infantry spent June 30th and July 1st, 1863.  From his journal…

We crossed the Potomac at Williamsport, and marched directly to Chambersburg. Here Pickett’s Division was held for a day or two to destroy the railroad and public property in the town. I was assigned to the duty of tearing up the road, destroying the turntable, and battering down the railroad houses. While I was engaged in this work, a man came out to me and asked me if I would spare his property, which was in one of the cars. I told him certainly, that we were not there to make war on private individuals. He was very grateful, and invited me and a half a dozen others into his house to take a drink. While we were in the dining-room taking a drink, his wife came in, in a perfect fury, and said to him, “How dare you to bring rebels into my house to take a drink? I will see that you are punished for this.” But notwithstanding her rage, we all took our drink. 

And thus, as Ewell’s Division was engaged to the north in Gettysburg - winning the day on the field for the Confederates and taking over 7,000 Federal prisoners, Uncle Eppa was “taking a drink” in Chambersburg with the rest of Pickett’s Division.  Their restbit would be short, the next day they would quick-march 25 miles north to Gettysburg and mostly die on July 3rd.

Sunday
4:57pm
permalink
150 years ago today, my great great uncle Eppa Hunton’s 8th Virginia Infantry - part of Picket’s Division of Longstreet’s 1st Corps in Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, had just crossed the Potomac River through Maryland heading towards Gettysburg.  
They were tired, having marched up and down Virginia for the past two years, battling the various generals that Lincoln had thrown at them.  Eppa and his 8th Virginians fought from the first battle of Manasas, where they captured The Henry House under General P.G.T. Beauregard’s orders and routed the remnants of McDowell’s army.  
Then Uncle Eppa and the 8th moved onto guarding the Confederate States of America border on the Potomac in Loudon County as part of PGT Beauregard’s Division culminating in The Battle of Ball’s Bluff where the 8th Virginia partnered with the 17th Mississippi to drive the federals into the river.  Then a forced march down state to the Battle of Yorktown, Battle of Williamsburg, Battle of Seven Pines, Battle of Mechanicsville and to the Battle of Gaines Mill in June of 1862.  From Uncle Eppa’s journal…

“After carrying the three lines we came upon this large body of artillery in the open field beyond the woods. Its fire had been very destructive to us. My regiment was a little in advance of the other regiments of the brigade, and I halted it a moment until they came up. We then resumed the charge, captured the artillery, and just after that, Jackson’s men who had been fighting on our left, came up somewhat obliquely on our left. We were met by a charge of cavalry. I have never seen saddles emptied so fast in my life, and we soon dispersed the cavalry in our front, and the fight ended. 
When the fighting was over I marched the brigade back beyond this ravine which separated the two armies, where we rested for the night. The losses on both sides were very heavy.
This was a great victory, and I think one of the hardest fights I was in, except Gettysburg. It reflected as much credit upon Pickett’s Brigade as any fight of the war, except Gettysburg.”

They continued on, in the James River campaign, protecting Richmond’s flank from McClellan’s Army including the Battle of Frazier’s Farm (Uncle Eppa: “The best planned battle of the war.”) From his journal:

"It was a marvelous campaign. General McClellan, with a large army – much larger than General Lee’s - had marched up within a few miles of Richmond, creating the greatest alarm in that city, and causing a very decided sentiment to remove the capitol from Richmond. In seven days General Lee had routed the besieging army, driving it many miles from the city, restored the confidence of the inhabitants, and then rested his army for sometime. It is difficult to find in military history the parallel of this short campaign." 
"I suffered dreadfully from pain and physical exhaustion in these fights and more than once fell from exhaustion on the battlefield. General Longstreet, who was always kind and considerate of me, was apprised of my condition and voluntarily gave me sick-leave to repair to my family in Lynchburg and remain till I was fit for duty. I found my dear wife and dear son well but very unhappy about me. I remained some time in Lynchburg and returned in better physical condition to my command, then encamped at Roper’s Mill, below Richmond. It was very trying to part from my wife and son. They did not know how soon I would die from disease, or fall on the battlefield. “

He returned to his command of the 8th, and they continued on to the Battle of Culpeper Courthouse and the Battle of Slaughter Mountain.  Again, from the journal


"When we reached Thoroughfare Gap, we found it was held by the enemy. Fortunately for us, the heavy forces had been withdrawn to aid in the capture of Jackson, and there was left only a brigade to defend it. General Lee not knowing the force that held the Gap directed me to take the brigade which I was still commanding, out of the line of march, and go through Lamber’s Gap (the next gap south of Thoroughfare), and flank the enemy out of the gap. I was selected for this duty because I was born and raised near Lambert’s Gap and knew the country. I had gotten my brigade nearly out of the line when General Lee countermanded the order and directed us to march directly upon the gap. Before I reached the gap another brigade had filed in before me, and a sharp fight ensued between the Federal forces holding the gap, and this brigade. The enemy was finally driven away. One brigade could not hold Thoroughfare Gap; it required at least a division. I slept in the gap that night and early the next morning we resumed our march to Gainesville."

And then the challenges of command presented themselves to old Uncle Eppa at the Second Battle of Manasas where General George Pickett was promoted to Major General and given a Division command and Uncle Eppa took command of Picket”s old Brigade…

Lee ordered Longstreet to reinforce Jackson. In galloping to the front, Longstreet got a view of the battlefield and instead of sending troops to Jackson, he moved out his whoe corps and attacked Pope somewhat in the flank.
The effect of this attack upon Pope was instantaneous. The fighting occurred upon very much the same ground where the first battle of Manassas was fought, and when Longstreet ordered his charge Pickett’s Brigade under my command, was posted on the right of Hood. In our charge we repulsed the enemy in my front very promptly and were in pursuit. Hood met with more resistance on my left from the Zouaves of the Federal Army, and after I had dispersed the enemy in my front, he was still fighting in the same position. There was a most admirable place there for a change of front of my brigade, and to attack the enemy a little in the flank and a little in the rear. I had reached a ravine down which flowed a little stream of water from the Chinn House. I was thoroughly protected from the fire and the view of the enemy. I determined I would change front and make an attack to relieve Hood. I gave the command in a very loud voice, which was heard by the Colonels of the extreme regiments, right and left. To be satisfied that all knew of my design, I sent a message to each Colonel and told him what I was going to do. Colonel R. C. Allen, of the 28th Regiment, said that “if Colonel Hunton wanted him to obey an order he must send it in writing,” and refused to obey the order. Supposing that the brigade had changed its marching order I placed myself at the head of the 56th Regiment, which was the directing regiment in the change of the front, and when I got to the point where we would front and charge over the hill right upon the enemy, I looked around and found that no other regiment was following. Colonel Allen, being next to the 56th, refused to follow, and the other regiments could not.
This broke up my plan of attack. I thought then, and think now, that if my orders had been carried out we would have captured most of the troops that were fighting Hood, and it would have been the most brilliant effort in my military career. I was humiliated and deeply mortified at the failure. My regimental commanders did not understand it and blamed me, but three days afterward they came to me in a body (except Allen) and said that while they had blamed me for the failure of that movement they had learned the facts and had come to apologize to me and to express their appreciation of the movement that I was trying to make.”

They continued fighting and marching, marching and fighting up and down Virginia against McClellan for the rest of 1862 and early 1863, through the Second Battle of Manasas, back up to a quick invasion of Maryland (and the Battle of Boonsborough), and then another march down to the Battle of Fredericksburg where Lee with 60k men took on Burnside with 100k men.
Which brought Uncle Eppa, exhausted, ragged, and battle-weary, to 150 years ago today, crossing the Potomac River.  Headed north toward Gettysburg, following his commander George Pickett and and his commanders Longstreet and Lee.  
photo: Baer Tierkel

150 years ago today, my great great uncle Eppa Hunton’s 8th Virginia Infantry - part of Picket’s Division of Longstreet’s 1st Corps in Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, had just crossed the Potomac River through Maryland heading towards Gettysburg.  

They were tired, having marched up and down Virginia for the past two years, battling the various generals that Lincoln had thrown at them.  Eppa and his 8th Virginians fought from the first battle of Manasas, where they captured The Henry House under General P.G.T. Beauregard’s orders and routed the remnants of McDowell’s army.  

Then Uncle Eppa and the 8th moved onto guarding the Confederate States of America border on the Potomac in Loudon County as part of PGT Beauregard’s Division culminating in The Battle of Ball’s Bluff where the 8th Virginia partnered with the 17th Mississippi to drive the federals into the river.  Then a forced march down state to the Battle of Yorktown, Battle of Williamsburg, Battle of Seven Pines, Battle of Mechanicsville and to the Battle of Gaines Mill in June of 1862.  From Uncle Eppa’s journal…

After carrying the three lines we came upon this large body of artillery in the open field beyond the woods. Its fire had been very destructive to us. My regiment was a little in advance of the other regiments of the brigade, and I halted it a moment until they came up. We then resumed the charge, captured the artillery, and just after that, Jackson’s men who had been fighting on our left, came up somewhat obliquely on our left. We were met by a charge of cavalry. I have never seen saddles emptied so fast in my life, and we soon dispersed the cavalry in our front, and the fight ended. 

When the fighting was over I marched the brigade back beyond this ravine which separated the two armies, where we rested for the night. The losses on both sides were very heavy.

This was a great victory, and I think one of the hardest fights I was in, except Gettysburg. It reflected as much credit upon Pickett’s Brigade as any fight of the war, except Gettysburg.

They continued on, in the James River campaign, protecting Richmond’s flank from McClellan’s Army including the Battle of Frazier’s Farm (Uncle Eppa: “The best planned battle of the war.”) From his journal:

"It was a marvelous campaign. General McClellan, with a large army – much larger than General Lee’s - had marched up within a few miles of Richmond, creating the greatest alarm in that city, and causing a very decided sentiment to remove the capitol from Richmond. In seven days General Lee had routed the besieging army, driving it many miles from the city, restored the confidence of the inhabitants, and then rested his army for sometime. It is difficult to find in military history the parallel of this short campaign." 

"I suffered dreadfully from pain and physical exhaustion in these fights and more than once fell from exhaustion on the battlefield. General Longstreet, who was always kind and considerate of me, was apprised of my condition and voluntarily gave me sick-leave to repair to my family in Lynchburg and remain till I was fit for duty. I found my dear wife and dear son well but very unhappy about me. I remained some time in Lynchburg and returned in better physical condition to my command, then encamped at Roper’s Mill, below Richmond. It was very trying to part from my wife and son. They did not know how soon I would die from disease, or fall on the battlefield. “

He returned to his command of the 8th, and they continued on to the Battle of Culpeper Courthouse and the Battle of Slaughter Mountain.  Again, from the journal

"When we reached Thoroughfare Gap, we found it was held by the enemy. Fortunately for us, the heavy forces had been withdrawn to aid in the capture of Jackson, and there was left only a brigade to defend it. General Lee not knowing the force that held the Gap directed me to take the brigade which I was still commanding, out of the line of march, and go through Lamber’s Gap (the next gap south of Thoroughfare), and flank the enemy out of the gap. I was selected for this duty because I was born and raised near Lambert’s Gap and knew the country. I had gotten my brigade nearly out of the line when General Lee countermanded the order and directed us to march directly upon the gap. Before I reached the gap another brigade had filed in before me, and a sharp fight ensued between the Federal forces holding the gap, and this brigade. The enemy was finally driven away. One brigade could not hold Thoroughfare Gap; it required at least a division. I slept in the gap that night and early the next morning we resumed our march to Gainesville."

And then the challenges of command presented themselves to old Uncle Eppa at the Second Battle of Manasas where General George Pickett was promoted to Major General and given a Division command and Uncle Eppa took command of Picket”s old Brigade…

Lee ordered Longstreet to reinforce Jackson. In galloping to the front, Longstreet got a view of the battlefield and instead of sending troops to Jackson, he moved out his whoe corps and attacked Pope somewhat in the flank.

The effect of this attack upon Pope was instantaneous. The fighting occurred upon very much the same ground where the first battle of Manassas was fought, and when Longstreet ordered his charge Pickett’s Brigade under my command, was posted on the right of Hood. In our charge we repulsed the enemy in my front very promptly and were in pursuit. Hood met with more resistance on my left from the Zouaves of the Federal Army, and after I had dispersed the enemy in my front, he was still fighting in the same position. There was a most admirable place there for a change of front of my brigade, and to attack the enemy a little in the flank and a little in the rear. I had reached a ravine down which flowed a little stream of water from the Chinn House. I was thoroughly protected from the fire and the view of the enemy. I determined I would change front and make an attack to relieve Hood. I gave the command in a very loud voice, which was heard by the Colonels of the extreme regiments, right and left. To be satisfied that all knew of my design, I sent a message to each Colonel and told him what I was going to do. Colonel R. C. Allen, of the 28th Regiment, said that “if Colonel Hunton wanted him to obey an order he must send it in writing,” and refused to obey the order. Supposing that the brigade had changed its marching order I placed myself at the head of the 56th Regiment, which was the directing regiment in the change of the front, and when I got to the point where we would front and charge over the hill right upon the enemy, I looked around and found that no other regiment was following. Colonel Allen, being next to the 56th, refused to follow, and the other regiments could not.

This broke up my plan of attack. I thought then, and think now, that if my orders had been carried out we would have captured most of the troops that were fighting Hood, and it would have been the most brilliant effort in my military career. I was humiliated and deeply mortified at the failure. My regimental commanders did not understand it and blamed me, but three days afterward they came to me in a body (except Allen) and said that while they had blamed me for the failure of that movement they had learned the facts and had come to apologize to me and to express their appreciation of the movement that I was trying to make.”

They continued fighting and marching, marching and fighting up and down Virginia against McClellan for the rest of 1862 and early 1863, through the Second Battle of Manasas, back up to a quick invasion of Maryland (and the Battle of Boonsborough), and then another march down to the Battle of Fredericksburg where Lee with 60k men took on Burnside with 100k men.

Which brought Uncle Eppa, exhausted, ragged, and battle-weary, to 150 years ago today, crossing the Potomac River.  Headed north toward Gettysburg, following his commander George Pickett and and his commanders Longstreet and Lee.  

Baer's Mojo is powered by Tumblr
sweet
mojo

SweetMojo by Baer Tierkel in Amherst Massachusetts


In my head...